Genetic differentiation estimated by isozymic analysis of Africanized honeybee populations from Brazil and from Central AmericaM.A. Del Lamaa, J.A. Lobob, A.E.E. Soaresb and S.N. Del Lamaa
a Departamento de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13560 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
b Departamento de Genetica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de Sâo Paulo, 14049, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
Abstract - Adult Apis mellifera workers were electrophoretically examined in at least 7 enzyme loci. Five loci were found to exhibit polymorphism (Est-1, Est-3, PGM-1, HK-1 and MDH-1) in the Africanized bee populations from Brazil and from Central America (Costa Rica and Honduras). Genetic variation was not observed for Est-1 and HK-1 in the bee samples from Italy and Germany, and for PGM-1 in the Italian bee sample. Genotypic frequencies at the MDH-1 and HK-1 loci in the Honduras sample are in disagreement with that expected for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting an incipient process of mixture between pre-existing European bees in this country and the Africanized swarms that came from South America. Racial admixture estimates based on MDH-1 data indicate that the Africanization level of Central American honeybees is less than for bees from Southeast and Northern Brazil.
Key words: Africanized honeybee / genetic variation / genetic differentiation / gene frequency / isozyme