Natural products smoke and its effect on Acarapis woodi and honey beesFrank A. Eischena and Carlos H. Vergarab
a Honey Bee Unit, USDA-ARS-SARC, 2413 E. Hwy 83, Weslaco, TX 78596, USA
b Departamento Quimica Y Biologia, Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, 72820 Santa Catarina Matir, Puebla, Mexico
(Received 23 September 2002; revised 26 June 2003; accepted 1st September 2003)
Abstract - We tested the effect natural products smoke has on the honey bee tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) and honey bees. Plant materials screened for activity included coffee beans (Coffea arabica), corncobs (Zea mays), creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), pecan leaves (Carya illinoiensis), dead and fresh pine needles (Pinus cembroides), mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Low but significant mite mortality was caused by the smoke of pine needles, mesquite, corncobs, and coffee beans. The smoke of L. tridentata killed more adult A. woodi than other materials (LT50 = 2.4 min, single exposure). It was not effective against immatures. Mite mortality was negatively correlated with parasites/trachea, suggesting that reduced air flow while breathing may have reduced efficacy. Efficacy was modest (ca. 70%) and it caused transitory bee anesthesia. We do not recommend using this material as a control.
Key words: creosote bush / Larrea tridentata / smoke / Acarapis woodi / secondary plant products
Corresponding author: Frank A. Eischen feischen@WESLACO.ARS.USDA.GOV
© INRA, EDP Sciences, DIB, AGIB 2004