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Table I

Maximum pesticide incidence in apiary samples of wax, pollen, bee and honey.

Total pesticidea CLASSb Maximum detection in ppb (ref.)c

Wax Pollen Bee Honey
Acephate S OP n.d. 163 n.d. 52
Acetamiprid S NEO n.d. 134 n.d. n.d.
Acrinathrin PYR 590 (1) 2400 (2)
Aldicarb S CARB 693 1342 n.d. n.d.
Aldrin CYC 5 (3) 150 (4)
Allethrin PYR 139 11 24 n.d.
Amicarbazone HERB n.d. 98 n.d. n.d.
Amitraz FORM 46060 1117 13780 555
Atrazine S HERB 31 49 15 81 (5)
Azinphos ethyl OP 94 (6)
Azinphos methyl OP 817 (7) 643 91(6) n.d.
Azoxystrobin S FUNG 278 107 n.d. 4 (27)
Bendiocarb S CARB 22 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Bifenthrin PYR 56 13 12 3
Bitertanol S FUNG 0.1 (8)
Boscalid S FUNG 388 962 33 (9) n.d.
Bromophos ethyl OP 12 (10)
Bromophos methyl OP 1733 (6)
Bromopropylate MITI 135000 (11) 11 2245 (12) 245 (12)
Captan PS FUNG 400 (13) 10000 1740 (13) 19 (14)
Carbaryl PS CARB 820 (13) 94000 (15) 5800 (13) 42
Carbendazim S FUNG 133 149 14 27 (27)
Carbofuran S CARB 22 1400 (16) 669 (6) 645 (17)
Carfentrazone ethyl PS HERB 17 3 n.d. n.d.
Chlordane CYC 60 (13) 690 (13)
Chlorfenapyr PS MITI 12 1 3 n.d.
Chlorfenvinphos OP 7620 (1) 11 n.d. 0.2 (18)
Chlorothalonil FUNG 53700 98900 878 10 (19)
Chlorpyrifos OP 890 830 57 (6) 15 (5)
Chlorpyrifos methyl OP 36 (6) 0.2 (18)
Clothianidin S NEO n.d. 2.6 (20) n.d. 0.9 (20)
Coumaphos OP 94131 5828 2777 (6) 2020 (21)
Cyfluthrin PYR 45 34 14 9 (19)
Cyhalothrin PYR 17 1672 (22) 2 0.8 (23)
Cymiazole MITI 17 (24)
Cypermethrin PYR 131 1900 (15) 26 92 (5)
Cyproconazole S FUNG 8 (15)
Cyprodinil S FUNG 106 344 19 n.d.
DDT-p,p′ OC > 40 45 7 658 (17)
Deltamethrin PYR 613 91 39 7 (23)
Dialifos OP 92 (4)
Diazinon OP 4 29 350 (13) 35 (24)
p-Dichlorobenzene OC 60000 (25) n.d. n.d. 112 (25)
Dichlofluanid FUNG 11 (26)
Dichlorvos OP 8 (19)
Dicloran FUNG 2 (27)
Dicofol OC 21 143 4 90 (27)
Dieldrin CYC 35 n.d. 12 13 (4)
Difenoconazole S FUNG n.d. 411 (14) n.d. 0.9 (14)
Diflubenzuron IGR n.d. 128 n.d. n.d.
Dimethomorph S FUNG 133 166 56 n.d.
Dimethoate S OP 4864 (9) 9 (23)
Diphenamid S FUNG n.d. 1 n.d. n.d.
Diphenylamine FUNG n.d. 32 n.d. n.d.
Endosulfan CYC 800 (13) 2224 (22) 4400 (13) 24 (5)
Endrin CYC 7 (4)
Esfenvalerate PYR 56 60 9 0.7 (23)
Ethion OP 131 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Ethofumesate S HERB 560 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Etoxazole MITI n.d. n.d. n.d. 1
Famoxadone FUNG n.d. 141 n.d. n.d.
Fenamidone FUNG 138 74 n.d. n.d.
Fenbuconazole S FUNG 183 264 n.d. n.d.
Fenhexamid FUNG 9 129 n.d. n.d.
Fenitrothion OP 511 (7) 10330 (6)
Fenoxaprop-ethyl S HERB n.d. n.d. 15 n.d.
Fenoxycarb IGR 157 (6)
Fenpropathrin PYR 200 170 37 n.d.
Fenthion S OP 38 (6)
Fipronil INS 36 29 3060 n.d.
Fluoxastrobin S FUNG 45 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Fluridone S HERB 7 24 7 n.d.
Flusilazole S FUNG 71 (15) 0.03 (8)
Flutolanil S FUNG 105 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Flumethrin PYR 50 (28) 1 (28)
Fluvalinate PYR 204000 2670 5860 750 (24)
Fonofos OP 15 (10)
Heptachlor CYC 31 2 n.d. 57 (4)
Heptenophos S OP 162 (6) 230 (17)
Hexachlorobenzene FUNG 1 1 n.d. 270 (17)
Hexaconazole S FUNG 12 (15)
Imidacloprid S NEO 14 912 n.d. 2 (29)
Indoxacarb INS n.d. 330 n.d. n.d.
Iprodione FUNG 636 5511 (30) n.d. 266 (30)
Lindane OC 290 (1) 7 (29) 11 (29) 4310 (17)
Malathion OP 6000 (31) 61 4200 (13) 243 (5)
Metalaxyl S FUNG 1 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Methamidophos S OP 38 (6)
Methidathion OP 79 33 32 68 (17)
Methiocarb CARB 346 (6) 27 (17)
Methomyl S CARB 140 (13) 3400 (13)
Methoxychlor OC 593 (4)
Methoxyfenozide IGR 495 128 21 3 (27)
Metolachlor PS HERB n.d. 103 n.d. n.d.
Metribuzin S HERB 8 44 n.d. n.d.
Myclobutanil S FUNG n.d. 981 n.d. n.d.
Norflurazon S HERB 38 108 n.d. n.d.
Omethoate S OP 1156 (9)
Oxamyl S CARB n.d. 43 n.d. n.d.
Oxyfluorfen HERB 34 5 5 n.d.
Parathion ethyl OP 99 (7) 19 (15) 5 (6)
Parathion methyl OP 3085 (32) 26000 (33) 3600 (13) 50 (33)
Penconazole S FUNG 126 (15) 8 (29)
Pendimethalin HERB 84 1730 28 n.d.
Permethrin PYR 372 92 19600 11 (27)
Phenothrin PYR n.d. 84 n.d. n.d.
Phenthoate OP 1 (6)
Phorate S OP 0.9 (18)
Phosalone OP n.d. 31 66 (9) n.d.
Phosmet OP 209 418 96 (6) n.d.
Phosphamidon S OP 50 (6)
Phoxim OP 355 (6)
Piperonyl butoxide SYN 470000 (34) n.d. 3000 (34) 10 (27)
Pirimiphos ethyl OP 30 (6)
Pirimiphos methyl OP 57 n.d. 62 19 (10)
Prallethrin PYR 7 8 9 n.d.
Prochloraz FUNG 412 (9)
Procymidone S FUNG 28 (7)
Profenofos OP 17 (6)
Pronamide S HERB 23 378 2 n.d.
Propanil HERB n.d. 358 n.d. n.d.
Propiconazole S FUNG 227 361 n.d. n.d.
Pyraclostrobin FUNG 438 265 9 17
Pyrazophos S OP 53 (6) 6 (10)
Pyrethrins PYR 237000 (34) 62 600 (34) n.d.
Pyridaben MITI 5 27 n.d. n.d.
Pyrimethanil FUNG 28 83 n.d. 4
Pyriproxyfen IGR 8 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Quinalphos OP 70 (6) 10 (23)
Quintozene = PCNB FUNG 3 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Sethoxydim S HERB n.d. 173 n.d. 8
Simazine S HERB n.d. 54 n.d. 17 (5)
Spinosad INS 320 (16)
Spirodiclofen MITI 29 2 n.d. n.d.
Spiromesifen S INS n.d. 2101 (22) n.d. n.d.
Tebuconazole S FUNG n.d. 34 1146 (9) 5 (5)
Tebufenozide IGR 28 58 23 n.d.
Tebuthiuron S HERB 22 48 n.d. n.d.
Tefluthrin PYR 3 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Temephos OP 689 (6) 7 (10)
Tetradifon MITI 580 n.d. n.d. 19 (19)
Tetraconazole S FUNG 17 (29)
Tetramethrin PYR n.d. 6 23 n.d.
Thiabendazole S FUNG 76 6 n.d. n.d.
Thiacloprid S NEO 8 115 n.d. 33
Thiamethoxam S NEO n.d. 53 n.d. n.d.
Triadimefon S FUNG 2 n.d. n.d. n.d.
Triallate HERB 4 (26)
Triazophos OP 9 (6)
Tribufos = DEF SYN 59 4 n.d. n.d.
Trifloxystrobin PS FUNG 22 264 n.d. 0.3 (8)
Trifluralin HERB 36 14 n.d. 9 (19)
Vamidothion S OP 24 (6)
Vinclozolin FUNG 27 31909 (30) 657 (9) 173 (30)
a

Acrinathrin is based mostly on 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde degradate, Aldicarb based on sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites; Amitraz based on total DMA and DMPF metabolites; Bromopropylate based on 4,4-dibromo-benzophenone; Captan includes THPI; Carbaryl includes 1-naphthol; Carbendazim is also a degradate of benomyl; Carbofuran based on parent plus 3-hydroxy metabolite; Coumaphos includes oxon, chlorferone and potasan; DDT includes DDD and DDE; Endosulfan includes isomers and sulfate; Heptachlor includes heptachlor epoxide; Imidacloprid includes 5-hydroxy and olefin metabolites; Thiabendazole is a degradate of thiophanate methyl.

b

Class: CAR = carbamate, CYC = cyclodiene, FORM = formamidine, FUNG = fungicide, HERB = herbicide, IGR = insect growth regulator, INS = misc. insecticide, MITI = miticide, NEO = neonicotinoid, OC = organochlorine, OP = organophosphate, PS = partial systemic, PYR = pyrethroid, S = systemic, SYN = synergist.

c

Data from Frazier et al. (2008); vanEngelsdorp et al. (2009b); or Mullin et al. (2010); unless otherwise referenced; n.d. = not detected.1 Jimenez et al. (2005); 2 Bernal et al. (2000); 3 Estep et al. (1977); 4 Fernandez-Muino et al. (1995); 5 Rissato et al. (2007); 6 Ghini et al. (2004); 7 Chauzat and Faucon (2007); 8 Nguyen et al. (2009); 9 Walorczyk et al. (2009); 10 Blasco et al. (2008); 11 Bogdanov et al. (1998); 12 Lodesani et al. (1992); 13 Anderson and Wojtas (1986); 14 Kubik et al. (2000); 15 Chauzat et al. (2006); 16 Bailey et al. (2005); 17 Blasco et al. (2003); 18 Balayiannis and Balayiannis (2008); 19 Rissato et al. (2004); 20 Cutler and Scott-Dupree (2007); 21 Martel et al. (2007); 22 Choudhary and Sharma (2008b); 23 Choudhary and Sharma (2008a); 24 Fernandez et al. (2002); 25 Bogdanov et al. (2004); 26 Albero et al. (2004); 27 USDA-AMS (2009); 28 Bogdanov (2006); 29 Chauzat et al. (2009); 30 Kubik et al. (1999); 31 Thrasyvoulou and Pappas (1988); 32 Russell et al. (1998); 33 Rhodes et al. (1979); 34 Taylor et al. (2007).

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