Free access
Issue
Apidologie
Volume 37, Number 2, March-April 2006
Stingless bees: biology and management
Page(s) 293 - 315
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2006022
Published online 22 June 2006
References of  Apidologie 37 (2006) 293-315
  • Amano K. (2004) Attempts to introduce stingless bees for the pollination of crops under greenhouse conditions in Japan, Food & Fertilizer Technology Center, [online] http:// www.fftc.agnet.org/library/article/tb167.html (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Amano K., Nemoto T., Heard T.A. (2000) What are stingless bees, and why and how to use them as crop pollinators? - a review, JARQ 34, 183-190. [online] http://ss.jircas.affrc.go.jp/engpage/jarq/34-3/amano/amano.htm (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Asiko A.G. (2004) The effect of total visitation time and number of visits by pollinators (Plebeia sp. and Apis mellifera mellifera) on the strawberry, M.Sc. Thesis, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Benton Jones J. Jr. (1998) Tomato plant culture in the field, greenhouse and home garden, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Biesmeijer J.C., Slaa E.J. (2004) Information flow and organization of stingless bee foraging, Apidologie 35, 143-157 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Biesmeijer J.C., Slaa E.J., Siqueira de Castro M., Viana B.F., Kleinert A., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. (2005) Connectance of Brazilian social bee - food plant networks is influenced by habitat, but not by latitude, altitude or network size, Biota Neotrop. 5, 1-9.
  • Buchmann S.L. (1983) Buzz pollination in angio-sperms, in: Jones C.E., Little R.J. (Eds.), Handbook of experimental pollination biology, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, N.Y., pp. 73-113.
  • Buchmann S.L., Nabhan G.P. (1996) The forgotten pollinators, Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Bustamante M. (1998) Polinización de Salvia splendens Sello utilizando cuatro especies de abejas bajo condicones de invernadero en Cartago, Costa Rica, M.Sc. Thesis, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.
  • Camargo C.A. de (1972) Mating of the social bee Melipona quadrifasciata under controlled conditions (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45, 520-523.
  • Campbell D.R., Motten A.F. (1985) The mechanism of competition between two forest herbs, Ecology 66, 554-563.
  • Can-Alonso C., Quezada-Euán J.J.G., Xiu-Ancona P., Moo-Valle H., Valdovinos-Nunez G.R., Medina-Peralta S. (2005) Pollination of 'criollo' avocados (Persea americana) and the behaviour of associated bees in subtropical Mexico, J. Apic. Res. 44, 3-8.
  • Cane J.H., Tepedino V.J. (2001) Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence, and consequences, Conserv. Ecol. 5, 1. [online] http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art1 (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Caron D. (2001) Africanized Honey Bees in the Americas, A.I. Root Company, Ohio, USA.
  • Carreck N., Williams I. (1998) The economic value of bees in the UK, Bee World 79, 115-123.
  • Cauich O., Quezada-Euán J.J.G., Macias-Macias J.O., Reyes-Oregel V., Medina-Peralta S., Parra-Tabla V. (2004) Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Subtropical México, Hortic. Entomol. 97, 475-481.
  • Cepeda Aponte O.I. (1997) Mating of Melipona favosa: behavioral description and some regulating factors (Apidae: Meliponinae), Proc. Exp. Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. 8, 75-78.
  • Cervancia C.R., Manila A.C. (2000) Pollination of calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco), Abstr. 7th IBRA Conf. Trop. Bees: Managem. Div. and 5th Asian Apic. Ass. Conf. Thailand, p. 136.
  • Chacoff N.P., Aizen M.A. (2006) Edge effects on flower-visiting insects in grapefruit plantations bordering premontane subtropical forest, J. Appl. Ecol., doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01116.x.
  • Chesson J. (1978) Measuring preference in selective predation, Ecology 59, 211-215.
  • Chesson J. (1983) The estimation and analysis of preference and its relationship to foraging models, Ecology 64, 1297-1304.
  • Cortopassi-Laurino M. (1982) Divisão de recursos tróficos entre abelhas sociais, principalmente em Apis mellifera Linné e Trigona (Trigona) spinipes Fabricius (Apidae, Hymenoptera), M.Sc. dissertation, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Cortopassi-Laurino M., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L., Roubik D.W., Dollin A., Heard T., Aguilar I.B., Eardley C., Nogueira-Neto P. (2006) Global meliponiculture: challenges and opportunities, Apidologie 37, 275-292.
  • Crane E. (1983) The archeology of beekeeping, Duckworth, London.
  • Crane E. (1992) The past and present status of beekeeping with stingless bees, Bee World 73, 29-42.
  • Cruz D. de O. (2003) Uso e eficiência da abelha jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke) na polinização do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) sob cultivo protegido, M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Brazil.
  • Cruz D. de O., Freitas B.M., Silva L.A. da, Silva S.E.M. da, Bomfim I.G.A. (2004) Use of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida to pollinate sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) flowers in greenhouse, Proc. 8th IBRA Int. Conf. Trop. Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, p. 661.
  • Cruz D. de O., Freitas B.M., Silva L.A. da, Silva S.E.M. da, Bomfim I.G.A. (2005) Pollination efficiency of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida on greenhouse sweet pepper, Pesq. Agropec. Bras., Brasilia 40, 1197-1201.
  • Dafni A., Kevan P.G., Husband B.C. (2005) Practical Pollination Biology, Enviroquest, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada.
  • Darwin (1876) The effects of cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom, Murray, London, UK.
  • Drumond P. (2004) Abelhas indígenas sem ferrão, Embrapa/CPAFAC: Acre. [online] http://www.cpafac.embrapa.br/chefias/cna/artigos/abelhas.htm (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Eltz T., Brühl C.A., van der Kaars S., Linsenmair K.E. (2002) Determinants of stingless bee nest density in lowland dipterocarp forests of Sabah, Malaysia, Oecologia 131, 27-34 [CrossRef].
  • Fonseca A., Picado A. (2000) The use of the stingless bees for pollination in production of vegetables seeds, Report, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Free J.B. (1993) Insect pollination of crops, 2nd ed., Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Freitas B.M., Paxton R.J. (1998) A comparison of two pollinators: the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) and an indigenous bee (Centris tarsata) on cashew (Anacardium occidentale) in its native range of NE Brazil, J. Appl. Ecol. 35, 109-121 [CrossRef].
  • Ghazoul J. (2005a) Buzziness as usual? Questioning the global pollination crisis, Trends Ecol. Evol. 20, 367-373 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Ghazoul J. (2005b) Response to Steffan-Dewenter et al.: Questioning the global pollination crisis, Trends Ecol. Evol. 20, 652-653 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Goulson D. (2003) Effects of introduced bees on native ecosystems, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 34, 1-26.
  • Greco M., Spooner-Hart R., Holford P. (2005) A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood and activity using X-ray computerized tomography, J. Apic. Res. 44, 97-100.
  • Heard T.A. (1999) The role of stingless bees in crop pollination, Annu. Rev. Entomol 44, 183-206 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Heard T.A., Exley E.M. (1994) Diversity, abundance, and distribution of insect visitors to macadamia flowers, Environ. Entomol. 23, 91-100.
  • Heard T.A., Dollin A. (2000) Stingless beekeeping in Australia, snapshot of an infant industry, Bee World 82, 116-125.
  • Heithaus E.R. (1979a) Flower-feeding specialization in wild bee and wasp communities in seasonal neotropical habitats, Oecologia 42, 179-194 [CrossRef].
  • Heithaus E.R. (1979b) flower visitation records and resource overlap of bees and wasps in northwest Costa Rica, Brenesia 16, 9-52.
  • Hingston A.B., McQuillan P.B. (1999) Displacement of Tasmanian native Megachilid bees by the recently introduced bumblee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera: Apidea), Aust. J. Zool. 47, 59-65 [CrossRef].
  • Hubbell S.P., Johnson L.K. (1977) Competition and nest spacing in a tropical stingless bee community, Ecology 58, 949-963.
  • Inoue T., Nakamura K., Salmah S., Abbas I. (1993) Population dynamics of animals in unpredictably-changing tropical environments, J. Biosci. 18, 425-455.
  • Ish-Am G., Barrientos-Priego F., Castañeda-Vildozola A., Gazit S. (1999) Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) pollinators in its region of origin, Rev. Chapingo Serie Hortic. 5, 137-143.
  • Kaftanoglu O. (2000) The diversity and faunistics of bumblebees for pollination in greenhouses, in: Sommeijer M.J., Ruijter A. de (Eds.), Insect Pollination in Greenhouses: proceedings of the specialists' meeting held in Soesterberg, The Netherlands, pp. 73-81.
  • Kakutani T., Inoue T., Tezuka T., Maeta Y. (1993) Pollination of strawberry by the stingless bee, Trigona minangkabau, and the honey bee, Apis mellifera: an experimental study of fertilization efficiency, Res. Popul. Ecol. 35, 95-111.
  • Katayama E. (1987) Utilization of honeybees as pollinators for strawberries in plastic greenhouses, Honeybee Sci. 8, 147-150 (in Japanese).
  • Kearns C.A., Inouye D.W. (1993) Pollinators, flowering plants, and conservation biology, BioScience 47, 297-307.
  • Kearns C.A., Inouye D.W. (1997) Techniques for pollination biologists, University Press of Colorado, Colorado.
  • Kearns C.A., Inouye D.W., Waser N.M. (1998) Endangered mutualisms: The conservation biology of plant-pollinator interactions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29, 83-112 [CrossRef].
  • Klein A.M., Steffan-Dewenter I., Tscharntke T. (2003a) Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, 955-961 [CrossRef].
  • Klein A.M., Steffan-Dewenter I., Tscharntke T. (2003b) Pollination of Coffea canephora in relation to local and regional agroforestry management, J. Appl. Ecol. 40, 837-845 [CrossRef].
  • Klein A.M., Steffan-Dewenter I., Tscharntke T. (2003c) Bee pollination and fruit set of Coffea arabica and C. canephora (Rubiaceae), Am. J. Bot. 90, 153-157.
  • Kremen C., Williams N.M., Thorp R.W. (2002) Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. (USA) 99, 16812-16816.
  • Kuyhor T. (2001) Foraging and pollination efficiency of Tetragonisca angustula on sweet pepper in a greenhouse, M.Sc. Thesis, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
  • Lalama K. (2001) Pollination effectiveness and efficiency of the stingless bee Plebeia sp. and the honeybee Apis mellifera on strawberry Fragaria $\times$ ananassa in a greenhouse, M.Sc. Thesis, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Maeta Y., Tezuka T., Nadano H., Suzuki K. (1992) Utilization of the Brazilian stingless bee, Nannotrigona testaceicornis, as a pollinator of strawberries, Honeybee Sci. 13, 71-78 (in Japanese).
  • Mah Y.I., Man-Youn L., Bilinski M. (2000) Some characteristics of Korean indigenous bumblebee species (Hymenoptera; Bombus spp.) in the laboratory conditions, in: Sommeijer M.J., Ruijter A. de (Eds.), Insect Pollination in Greenhouses: proceedings of the specialists' meeting held in Soesterberg, The Netherlands, pp. 107-115.
  • Malagodi-Braga K.S. (2002) Tetragonisca angustula as strawberry pollinator in greenhouses, Ph.D. Thesis, Brazil.
  • Malagodi-Braga K.S., Kleinert A.M.P. (2004) Could Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Apinae, Meliponini) be used as strawberry pollinator in greenhouses? Aust. J. Agric. Res. 55, 771-773.
  • Marco P. de, Coelho F.M. (2004) Services performed by the ecosystem: forest remnants influence agricultural cultures, pollination and production, Biodivers. Conserv. 13, 1245-1255 [CrossRef].
  • McGregor S.E. (1976) Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants, Agriculture Handbook No. 496, Washington, DC: US Dep. Agric. [online] http://www.beeculture.com/content/ pollination_handbook/index.html (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Meléndez-Ramirez V., Magaña-Rueda S., Parra-Tabla V., Ayala R., Navarro J. (2002) Diversity of native bee visitors of cucurbit crops (Cucurbitaceae) in Yucatán, México, J. Insect Conserv. 6, 135-147 [CrossRef].
  • Meeuwsen F.J.A.J. (2000) Stingless bees for pollination purposes in greenhouses, in: Sommeijer M.J., Ruijter A. de (Eds.), Insect Pollination in Greenhouses: Proc. specialists' meeting held in Soesterberg, The Netherlands, pp. 143-147.
  • Michener C.D. (2000) The bees of the world, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • Morales C.L., Aizen M.A. (2004) Potential displacement of the native bumblebee Bombus dahlbomii by the invasive Bombus ruderatus in NW Patagonia, Argentina, Proc. 8th IBRA Int. Conf. Trop. Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, pp. 70-76.
  • Morton J. (1987) Calamondin, in: Morton J.F. (Ed.), Fruits of warm climates, Miami, USA, pp. 176-178, [online] http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/calamondin.html #Propagation (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Murillo M. (1984) Uso y manejo actual de las colonias de Melipona beecheii Bennett (Apidae: Meliponini) en el estado de Tabasco, Mexico, Biotica 9, 423-428.
  • Nabhan G.P., Allen-Wardell G., Bernhardt P., Bitner R. (1998) The potential consequences of pollinator declines on the conservation of biodiversity and stability of food crop yields, Conserv. Biol. 12, 8-17 [CrossRef].
  • Nieh J.C. (2004) Recruitment and communication in stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), Apidologie 35, 159-182 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Nogueira-Neto P. (1997) Vida e criação de abelhas indígenas sem ferrão, Nogueirapis, São Paulo.
  • Occhiuzzi P. (1999) Stingless bees thrive in glasshouse trial, Aussie Bee 12, 8-11, Published by Australian Nature Bee Research Centre, North Richmond NSW Australia.
  • Occhiuzzi P. (2000) Stingless bees pollinate greenhouse Capsicum, Aussie Bee 13, 15. Published by Australian Nature Bee Research Centre, North Richmond NSW Australia.
  • Picado A. (2000) Sistema reproductivo, de Salvia splendens Sello y el efecto de las abejas Tetragonisca angustula y Apis mellifera en su polinización, M.Sc. thesis, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia.
  • Quezada-Euàan J., May-Itzá W., Gónzalez-Acereto J. (2001) Meliponiculture in Mexico: problems and perspective for development, Bee World 82, 160-167.
  • Ramalho M., Kleinert-Giovannini A., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. (1990) Important bee plants for stingless bees (Melipona and Trigonini) and Africanised honeybees (Apis mellifera) in neotropical habitats: a review, Apidologie 21, 469-488.
  • Richards A.J. (2001) Does low biodiversity resulting from modern agricultural practice affect crop pollination and yield? Ann. Bot. 88, 165-172 [CrossRef].
  • Ricketts T.H. (2004) Tropical forest fragments enhance pollinator activity in nearby coffee crops, Conserv. Biol. 18, 1262-1271 [CrossRef].
  • Ricketts T.H., Daily G.C., Ehrlich P.R., Michener C.D. (2004) Economic value of tropical forest to coffee production, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. (USA) 101, 12579-12582.
  • Rindfleisch (1980) A case for meliponiculture in pollination, Am. Bee J. 120, 468-470.
  • Rosso J.M., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L., Cortopassi-Laurino M. (2001) Meliponicultura en Brasil II: tecnicas de manejo, II Seminario Mexicano sobre abejas sin aguijón, Memorias, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, p. 132.
  • Roubik D.W. (1989) Ecology and natural history of tropical bees, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Roubik D.W. (1992) Stingless bees: a guide to Panamanian and Mesoamerican species and their nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae), in: Quintero D., Aiello A. (Eds.), Insects of Panamá and Mesoamerica, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 495-524.
  • Roubik D.W. (1995a) Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics, FAO Agric. Serv. Bull. 118, Rome.
  • Roubik D.W. (1995b) Stingless bee colonies for pollination, in: Roubik D.W. (Ed.), Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics, FAO Agric. Serv. Bull. 118, Rome, pp. 150-154.
  • Roubik D.W. (2002a) The value of bees to the coffee harvest, Nature 417, 708 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Roubik D.W. (2002b) Feral African Bees augment Neotropical coffee yield, in: Pollinating Bees: The Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature, Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasilia, Brazil [online] http://striweb.si.edu/publications/PDFs/Roubik_coffee97.pdf (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Samejima H., Marzuki M., Nagamitsu T., Nakasizauka T. (2004) The effects of human disturbance on a stingless bee community in a tropical rainforest, Biol. Conserv. 120, 577-587 [CrossRef].
  • Sánchez L.A., Picado A., Sommeijer M.J., Slaa E.J. (2002) Floral Biology, pollination ecology and seed production of the ornamental plant Salvia splendens Sello, J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 77, 498-501.
  • Santos S.A.B. dos, Bego L.R., Roselino A.C. (2004a) Pollination in tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum, by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apinae), Proc. 8th IBRA Int. Conf. Trop. Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, p. 688.
  • Santos S.A.B. dos (2004b) Pollination of cucumber - Cucumis sativus - by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini), Proc. 8th IBRA Int. Conf. Trop. Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, p. 689.
  • Sarto M.C.L. del, Peruquetti R.C., Campos L.A.O. (2005) Evaluation of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes, J. Econ. Entomol. 98, 260-266 [PubMed].
  • Schneider S.S., DeGrande-Hoffman G., Smith D.R. (2004) The African honeybee: factors contributing to a successful biological invasion, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 49, 351-376 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Seeley T.D. (1985) Honeybee Ecology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
  • Slaa E.J. (2003) Foraging ecology of stingless bees: from individual behaviour to community ecology, Ph.D. dissertation, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Slaa E.J. (2006) Population dynamics of a stingless bee community in the seasonal dry lowlands of Costa Rica, Insectes Soc. 53, 70-79.
  • Slaa E.J., Sánchez L.A., Sandí M., Salzar W. (2000a) A scientific note on the use of stingless bees for commercial pollinaton in enclosures, Apidologie 31, 141-142 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Slaa E.J., Sánchez L.A., Sandî M., Salzar W. (2000b) Pollination of an ornamental plant (Salvia farinacea: Labiatae) by two species of stingless bees and Africanised honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in: Sommeijer M.J., Ruijter A. de (Eds.), Insect Pollination in Greenhouses: Proc. specialists' meeting held in Soesterberg, The Netherlands, pp. 209-215.
  • Slaa E.J., Wassenberg J., Biesmeijer J.C. (2003a) The use of field-based social information in eusocial foragers: local enhancement among nestmates and heterospecifics in stingless bees, Ecol. Entomol. 28, 369-379 [CrossRef].
  • Slaa E.J., Tack A.J.M., Sommeijer M.J. (2003b) The effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on flower constancy in stingless bees, Apidologie 34, 457-468 [EDP Sciences].
  • Sommeijer M.J., Ruijter A. de (2000) Insect pollination in greenhouses, Proc. specialists' meeting held in Soesterberg, The Netherlands.
  • Southwick L., Southwick E.E. (1992) Estimating the economic value of honey bees as agricultural pollinators in the United States, J. Econ. Entomol. 85, 621-633.
  • Steffan-Dewenter I., Potts S.G., Packer L. (2005) Pollinator diversity and crop pollination services are at risk, Trends Ecol. Evol. 20, 651-652 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Thai P.H. (2001) Foraging and pollination efficiency of the stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, on radish, Raphanus sativus, in a greenhouse, M.Sc. thesis Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
  • Thomson J.D. (1983) Component analysis of community-level interactions in pollination systems, in: Jones C.E., Little R.J. (Eds.), Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, pp. 451-460.
  • Torchio P.F. (1987) Use of non-honeybee species as pollinators of crops, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 118, 111-124.
  • UNEP (2002) Action for a sustainable future, Decisions from the Sixth meeting of the conference of the parties to the convention on Biological diversity, United Nations, The Hague, The Netherlands, [online] http://www.biodiv.org/doc/meetings/cop/cop-06/official/cop-06-20-en.pdf (accessed on 6 March 2006).
  • Venturieri G.A., Pickkersgill B., Overal W.L. (1993) Floral biology of the Amazonian fruit tree "cupuassu" (Theobroma grandiflorum), in: Biodiversity and Environment - Brazilian Themes for the Future, London, Linn. Soc. London, R. Bot. Gard. P. 23.
  • Villanueva-G.R., Roubik D.W., Colli-Ucán (2005) Extinction of Melipona beecheii and traditional beekeeping in the Yucatán peninsula, Bee World 86, 35-41.
  • Visscher P.K., Seeley T.D. (1982) Foraging strategy of honeybee colonies in a temperate deciduous forest, Ecology 63, 1790-1801.
  • Wagner A., Dollin L. (1983) Swarming in Australian native bees - help solve the mystery! Australas. Beekeeper 84, 34-37.
  • Waser N.M. (1983) Competition for pollination and floral character differences among sympatric plant species: a review of evidence, in: Jones C.E., Little R.J. (Eds.), Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, pp. 277-293.
  • Watanabe M. (1994) Pollination worries rise as honey bees decline, Science 265, 1170.
  • Weaver E.C., Weaver N. (1981) Beekeeping with the stingless bee (Melipona beecheii) by the Yucatecan Maya, Bee World 62, 7-19.
  • Wille A. (1961) Las abejas jicotes de Costa Rica, Rev. Univ. de Costa Rica 22, 1-30.
  • Wille A., Orozco E. (1983) Polinización del chayote Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz en Costa Rica, Rev. Biol. Trop. 31, 145-154.
  • Willmer P.G., Stone G.N. (1989) Incidence of entomophilous pollination of lowland coffee (Coffea canephora); the role of leaf cutter bees in Papua New Guinea, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 50, 113-124.
  • Winston M.L. (1992) The Africanized honey bee, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 37, 173-193 [CrossRef].
  • Zebrowska J. (1998) Influence of pollination modes on yield components in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), Plant Breeding 17, 255-260.