Free access
Issue
Apidologie
Volume 37, Number 4, July-August 2006
Page(s) 411 - 420
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2006028
Published online 17 May 2006
References of  Apidologie 37 (2006) 411-420
  • Alippi A.M., Aguilar O.M. (1998a) Charaterization of isolates of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae from diverse geographical origin by the polymerase chain reaction and BOX primers, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 72, 21-27 [PubMed].
  • Alippi A.M., Aguilar O.M. (1998b) Unique DNA fingerprint patterns of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae strains, J. Apic. Res. 37, 273-280.
  • Alippi A.M., López A.C., Aguilar O.M. (2004) A PCR-based method that permits specific detection of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the cause of American foulbrood of honeybees, at subspecies level, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 39, 25-33 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Ash C., Farrow J.A.E., Wallbanks S., Collins M.D. (1991) Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the genus Bacillus revealed by comparative analysis of small subunit-ribosomal RNA sequences, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13, 202-206.
  • Ash C., Proest F.G., Collins M.D. (1993) Molecular identification of rRNA group 3 bacilli (Ash, Farrow, Wallbanks and Collins) using a PCR probe test, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64, 253-260 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Bailey L. (1957) The cause of European foulbrood, Bee World 38, 89-95.
  • Bailey L. (1983) Melissococcus pluton, the cause of European foulbrood of honeybees (Apis spp.), J. Appl. Bacteriol. 55, 65-69.
  • Brødsgaard C., Ritter W., Hansen H. (1998) Response of in vitro reared honeybee larvae to various doses of Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores, Apidologie 29, 569-578.
  • Brødsgaard C., Hansen H., Ritter W. (2000) Progress of Paenibacillus larvae larvae infection in individually inoculated honeybee larvae reared singly in vitro, in micro colonies, or in full-size colonies, J. Apic. Res. 39, 19-27.
  • Carpana E., Marocci L., Gelmini L. (1995) Evaluation of the API50CHB system for the identification and biochemical characterization of Bacillus larvae, Apidologie 26, 11-16.
  • Cheshire F.R., Cheyne W.W. (1885) The pathogenic history and history under cultivation of a new bacillus (B. alvei) the cause of a disease of bee hives hitherto known as foul brood, J. R. Microsc. Soc. V, 581.
  • Djordjevic S., Ho-Shon M., Hornitzky M. (1994) DNA restriction endonuclease profiles and typing of geographically diverse isolates of Bacillus larvae, J. Apic. Res. 33, 95-103.
  • Dobbelaere W., de Graaf D.C., Peeters J.E., Jacobs F.J. (2001) Comparison of two commercial kits for biochemical characterization of Paenibacillus larvae larvae in the diagnosis of AFB, J. Apic. Res. 40, 37-40.
  • Drobnikova V., Richter V., Häusler J., Pytelova I. (1994) Characterization of Bacillus larvae and related bacilli by chromatography of cell fatty acids, J. Apic. Res. 33, 69-74.
  • Elzen P., Westervelt D., Causey D., Rivera R., Baxter J., Feldlaufer M. (2002) Control of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood with tylosin and its toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera), J. Apic. Res. 41, 97-100.
  • Ewald P.W. (2002) Virulence management in humans, in: Dieckmann U., Metz J.A.J., Sabelis M.W., Sigmund K. (Eds.), Adaptive dynamics of infectious diseases: in pursuit of virulence management, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 399-412.
  • Fries I., Camazine S. (2001) Implications of horizontal and vertical pathogen transmission for honeybee epidemiology, Apidologie 32, 199-214 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Fries I., Lindström A., Korpela S. (2006) Vertical transmission of American foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in honey bees (Apis mellifera), Vet. Microbiol. 114, 269-274 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Genersch E., Otten C. (2003) The use of repetitive element PCR fingerprinting (rep-PCR) for genetic subtyping of German field isolates of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. Larvae, Apidologie 34, 195-206 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Genersch E., Ashiralieva A., Fries I. (2005) Strain- and genotype-specific differences in virulence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a bacterial pathogen causing American foulbrood disease in honeybees, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 7551-7555 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Genersch E., Forsgren E., Pentikäinen J., Ashiralieva A., Rauch S., Kilwinski J., Fries I. (2006) Reclassification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies classification, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56, 501-511 [PubMed].
  • Gilliam M., Dunham D.R. (1978) Recent isolations of Bacillus pulvifaciens from powdery scales of honeybee, Apis mellifera, larvae, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 32, 222-223.
  • Govan V.A., Allsopp M.H., Davison S. (1999) A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Paenibacillus larvae, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 2243-2245 [PubMed].
  • Hansen H., Brødsgaard C. (1999) American foulbrood: a review of its biology, diagnosis and control, Bee World 80, 5-23.
  • Heyndrickx M., Vandemeulebroecke K., Hoste B., Janssen P., Kersters K., De Vos P., Logan N., Ali N., Berkeley R. (1996) Reclassification of Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) pulvifaciens (Nakamura 1984) Ash et al. 1994, a later subjective synonym of Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) larvae (White 1906) Ash et al. 1994, as a subspecies of P. larvae, with emended descriptions of P. larvae as P. larvae subsp. larvae and P. larvae subsp. Pulvifaciens, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46, 270-279 [PubMed].
  • Hitchcock J.D., Stoner A., Wilson W.T., Menapace D.M. (1979) Pathogenicity of Bacillus pulvifaciens to honeybee larvae of various ages (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 52, 238-246.
  • Hoage T.R., Rothenbuhler W.C. (1966) Larval honeybee response to various doses of Bacillus larvae spores, J. Econ. Entomol. 59, 42-45.
  • Jelinski M. (1985) Some biochemical properties of Bacillus larvae White, Apidologie 16, 69-76.
  • Katznelson H. (1950) Bacillus pulvifaciens (n. sp.), an organism associated with powdery scale of honeybee larvae, J. Bacteriol. 59, 153-155 [PubMed].
  • Katznelson H., Jamieson C.A. (1951) Antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents in the control of bee diseases, Sci. Agric. 32, 219-225.
  • Kilwinski J., Peters M., Ashiralieva A., Genersch E. (2004) Proposal to reclassify Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens DSM 3615 (ATCC 49843) as Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae. Results of a comparative biochemical and genetic study, Vet. Microbiol. 104, 31-42 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Kochansky J., Knox D.A., Feldlaufer M., Pettis J.S. (2001) Screening alternative antibiotics against oxytetracycline-susceptible and -resistant Paenibacillus larvae, Apidologie 32, 215-222 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Miyagi T., Peng C.Y.S., Chuang R.Y., Mussen E.C., Spivak M.S., Doi R.H. (2000) Verification of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood pathogen Paenibacillus larvae in the United States, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 75, 95-96 [PubMed].
  • Mussen E.C. (2000) Antibiotic-resistant American foulbrood, Am. Bee J. 140, 300-301.
  • Neuendorf S., Hedtke K., Tangen G., Genersch E. (2004) Biochemical characterization of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a honeybee bacterial pathogen, Microbiology 150, 2381-2390 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Peters M., Kilwinski J., Beringhoff A., Reckling D., Genersch E. (2006) American foulbrood of the honey bee: Occurrence and distribution of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae in the administrative district of Arnsberg (North Rhine-Westphalia), J. Med. Vet. B 53, 100-104.
  • Schirach G.A. (1769) Histoire des Abeilles ; Chap. 3, p. 56.
  • Shapiro-Ilan D.I., Fuxa J.R., Lacey L.A., Onstad D.W., Kaya H.K. (2005) Definitions of pathogenicity and virulence in invertebrate pathology, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 88, 1-7 [PubMed].
  • Spivak M., Reuter G.S. (2001) Resistance to American foulbrood disease by honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, bred for hygienic behavior, Apidologie 32, 555-565 [EDP Sciences] [CrossRef].
  • Steinhaus E.A., Martignoni M.E. (1970) An abridged glossary of terms used in invertebrate pathology, 2nd ed., USDA Forest Service, PNW Forest and Range Experiment Station.
  • Sturtevant A.P., Revell I.L. (1953) Reduction of Bacillus larvae spores in liquid food of honeybees by action of the honey stopper, and its relation to the development of American foulbrood, J. Econ. Entomol. 46, 855-860.
  • Tarr H.L.A, (1938) Studies on American foulbrood of bees. III. The resistance of individual larvae to inoculation with the endospores of Bacillus larvae, Ann. Appl. Biol. 25, 807-814.
  • Thomas S.R., Elkinton J.S. (2004) Pathogenicity and virulence, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 85, 146-151 [PubMed].
  • Versalovic J., Schneider M., de Bruijn F.J., Lupski J.R. (1994) Genomic fingerprinting of bacteria using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction, Methods Mol. Cell. Biol. 5, 25-40.
  • White G.F. (1906) The bacteria of the apiary with special reference to bee diseases, in: USDA, Bureau of Entomology, Technical Series 14, 1-50.
  • Woodrow A.W. (1942) Susceptibility of honeybee larvae to individual inoculations with spores of Bacillus larvae, J. Econ. Entomol. 35, 892-895.
  • Woodrow A.W., Holst E.C. (1942) The mechanism of colony resistance to American foulbrood, J. Econ. Entomol. 35, 327-330.
  • Wu X.-Y., Chin J., Ghalayini A., Hornitzky M. (2005) Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing and oxytetracycline sensitivity of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae isolates of Australian origin and those recovered from honey imported from Argentina, J. Apic. Res. 44, 87-92.