Free access
Issue
Apidologie
Volume 40, Number 3, May-June 2009
Bee conservation
Page(s) 263 - 284
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009027
Published online 07 July 2009
References of  Apidologie 40 (2009) 263–284
  • Abrahamovich A.H., Atela O., De la Rúa P., Galián J. (2007) Assessment of the mitochondrial origin of honeybees from Argentina, J. Apic. Res. 46, 191–194.
  • Adam B. (1983) In search of the best strains of bees, Dadant Sons, Hamilton Illinois.
  • Aizen M.A., Feinsinger P. (1994) Forest fragmentation, pollination, and plant reproduction in a Chaco dry forest, Argentina, Ecology 75, 330–351 [CrossRef].
  • Alpatov W.W. (1929) Biometrical studies on variation and races of the honeybee Apis mellifera L., Rev. Biol. 4, 1–57 [CrossRef].
  • Arias M.C., Sheppard W.S. (1996) Molecular phylogenetics of honey bees subspecies (Apis mellifera L.), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 5, 557–566 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Arias M.C., Rinderer T.E., Sheppard W.S. (2006) Further characterization of honey bees from the Iberian Peninsula by allozyme, morphometric and mtDNA haplotype analyses, J. Apic. Res. 45, 188–196.
  • Badino G., Celebrano G., Manino A. (1983) Population structure and Mdh-1 locus variation in Apis mellifera ligustica, J. Hered. 74, 443–446 [PubMed].
  • Badino G., Celebrano G., Manino A., Longo S. (1985) Enzyme polymorphism in the Sicilian honey bee, Experientia 41, 752–754 [CrossRef].
  • Badino G., Celebrano G., Manino A., Ifantidis M.D. (1988) Allozyme variability in Greek honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), Apidologie 19, 377–386 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Baer B., Heazlewood J.L., Taylor N.L., Eubel H., Millar A.H. (2009) The seminal fluid proteome of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Proteomics. DOI: 10.1002/pmic.200800708.
  • Bailey J., Scott-Dupree C., Harris R., Tolman J., Harris B. (2005) Contact and oral toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) of agents registered for use for sweet corn insect control in Ontario, Canada, Apidologie 36, 623–633 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Batley M., Hogendoorn K. (2009) Diversity and conservation status of native Australian bees, Apidologie 40, 347–354 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Batra S.T.W. (1988) Automatic image analysis for rapid identification of Africanized honey bees, in: Needham G.R. (Ed.), Africanized honey bees and bee mites. Ellis Horwood Series in Entomology and Acariology, Halsted Press, New York, pp. 260–263.
  • Baudry E., Solignac M., Garnery L., Gries M., Cornuet J.M., Koeniger N. (1998) Relatedness among honeybees (Apis mellifera) of a drone congregation area, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 265, 2009–2014 [CrossRef].
  • Benjamin A., McCallum B. (2008) A World Without Bees, Guardian Books, 208 p.
  • Beye M., Gattermeier I., Hasselmann M., Gempe T., Schioett M., Baines J.F., Schlipalius D., Mougel F., Emore C., Rueppell O., Sirviö A., Guzmán-Novoa E., Hunt G., Solignac M., Page R.E. (2006) Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome, Genome Res. 16, 1339–1344 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Biesmeijer J.C., Roberts S.P.M., Reemer M., Ohlemuller R., Edwards M., Peeters T., Schaffers A.P., Potts S.G., Kleukers R., Thomas C.D., Settele J., Kunin W.E. (2006) Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands, Science 313, 351–354 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Bodur C., Kence M., Kence A. (2007) Genetic structure of honeybee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations of Turkey inferred from microsatellite analysis, J. Apic. Res. 46, 50–56.
  • Bookstein F.L. (1991) Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data, Geometry and Biology, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bouga M., Kilias G., Harizanis P.C., Papasotiropoulos V., Alahiotis S. (2005a) Allozyme Variability and Phylogenetic Relationships in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apis mellifera) populations from Greece and Cyprus, Biochem. Genet. 43, 471–483 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Bouga M., Harizanis P.C., Kilias G., Alahiotis S. (2005b) Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships of honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations from Greece and Cyprus using PCR-RFLP analysis of three mtDNA segments, Apidologie 36, 335–344 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Cánovas F., De la Rúa P., Serrano J., Galián J. (2008) Geographical patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation in Apis mellifera iberiensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 46, 24–30.
  • Carreck N.L. (2008) Are honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) native to the British Isles? J. Apic. Res. 47, 318–322 [CrossRef].
  • Cermak K., Kaspar F. (2000) A method of classifying honey bee races by their body characters, Pszcz.. Zesz. Nauk. (XLIV) 2, 81–86.
  • Chaline N., Ratnieks F.L.W., Burke T. (2002) Anarchy in the UK: Detailed genetic analysis of worker reproduction in a naturally occurring British anarchistic honeybee, Apis mellifera, colony using DNA microsatellites, Mol. Ecol. 11, 1795–1803 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Clarke K.E., Rinderer T.E., Franck P., Quezada-Euan J.G., Oldroyd B.P. (2001) The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: A study of a massive hybridization event across time, Evolution 56, 1462–1474.
  • COAG (2007) Anuario Agrario: Apicultura, [online] http://194.30.12.92/rep_ficheros_web/208c4f87992370db4f614556778e04e7.pdf (accessed on 9 February 2009).
  • Comparini A., Biasiolo A. (1991) Genetic discrimination of Italian bee, Apis mellifera ligustica versus Carniolan bee, Apis mellifera carnica by allozyme variability analysis, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 19, 189–194 [CrossRef].
  • Cornuet J.M., Fresnaye J. (1989) Étude biométrique de colonies d'abeilles d'Espagne et du Portugal, Apidologie 20, 93–101 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Cornuet J.M., Garnery L. (1991) Mitochondrial-DNA variability in honeybees and its phylogeographic implications, Apidologie 22, 627–642 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Cornuet J.M., Albisetti J., Mallet N., Fresnaye J. (1982) Étude biométrique d'une population d'abeilles landaises, Apidologie 13, 3–13 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Cornuet J. M., Daoudi A., Chevalet C. (1986) Genetic pollution and number of matings in a black honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) population, Theor. Appl. Genet. 73, 223–227 [CrossRef].
  • Crewe R.M., Hepburn H.R., Moritz R.F.A. (1994) Morphometric analysis of 2 southern African races of honeybee, Apidologie 25, 61–70 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Dall'Olio R., Marino A., Lodesani M., Moritz R.F.A. (2007) Genetic characterization of Italian honeybees, Apis mellifera ligustica, based on microsatellite DNA polymorphisms, Apidologie 38, 207–217 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Daly H.V., Hoelmer K., Norman P., Allen T. (1982) Computer-assisted measurement and identification of honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 75, 591–594.
  • Dedej S., Biasiolo A., Piva R. (1996) Morphometric and alloenzyme characterization in the Albanian honeybee population Apis mellifera L., Apidologie 27, 121–131 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Dedej S., Nazzi F. (1994) Two distances of forewing venation as estimates of wing size, J. Apic. Res. 33, 59–61.
  • De la Rúa P., Serrano J., Galián J. (1998) Mitochondrial DNA variability in the Canary Islands honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), Mol. Ecol. 7, 1543–1547 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • De la Rúa P., Galián J., Serrano J., Moritz R.F.A. (2001a) Genetic structure and distinctness of Apis mellifera L. populations from the Canary Islands, Mol. Ecol. 10, 1733–1742 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • De la Rúa P., Galián J., Serrano J., Moritz R.F.A. (2001b) Molecular characterization and population structure of the honeybees from the Balearic islands (Spain), Apidologie 32, 417–427 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • De la Rúa P., Galián J., Serrano J., Moritz R.F.A. (2002a) Microsatellite analysis of non-migratory colonies of Apis mellifera iberica from south-eastern Spain, J. Zool. Evol. Res. 40, 164–168 [CrossRef].
  • De la Rúa P., Serrano J., Galián J. (2002b) Biodiversity of Apis mellifera populations from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and hybridisation with East European races, Biodivers. Conserv. 11, 59–67 [CrossRef].
  • De la Rúa P., Galián J., Serrano J., Moritz R.F.A. (2003) Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism, Genet. Sel. Evol. 35, 339–350 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [EDP Sciences].
  • De la Rúa P., Jimenez Y., Galián J., Serrano J. (2004) Evaluation of the biodiversity of honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations from eastern Spain, J. Apic. Res. 43, 162–166.
  • De la Rúa P., Hernandez-Garcia R., Jimenez Y., Galián J., Serrano J. (2005) Biodiversity of Apis mellifera iberica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from northeastern Spain assessed by mitochondrial analysis, Insect Syst. Evol. 36, 21–28.
  • De la Rúa P., Galián J., Pedersen B.V., Serrano J. (2006) Molecular characterization and population structure of Apis mellifera from Madeira and the Azores, Apidologie 37, 699–708 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Dick C.W. (2001) Genetic rescue of remnant tropical trees by an alien pollinator, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268, 2391–2396 [CrossRef].
  • Dietemann V., Pirk C.W.W., Crewe R. (2009) Is there a need for conservation of Honeybees in Africa? Apidologie 40, 285–295 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Duan J.J., Marvier M., Huesing J., Dively G., Huang Z.Y. (2008) A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), PLoS ONE 3, e1415.
  • EC (2004) http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/publi/achievements/text_en.pdf.
  • EFSA (2008) Bee Mortality and Bee Surveillance in Europe, The Efsa J. 154, 1–28.
  • Estoup A., Solignac M., Harry M., Cornuet J.M. (1993) Characterization of (GT), and (CT) microsatellites in two insect species: Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris, Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 1427–1431 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Estoup A., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (1995) Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations: Hierarchical genetic structure and test of the infinite allele and stepwise mutation models, Genetics 140, 679–695 [PubMed].
  • EU (2004), Achievements in Agriculturall Policy under Commissioner Franz Fischler (Period 1995–2004). European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 1–31.
  • Faucon J.P., Aurieres C., Drajnudel P., Mathieu L., Ribière M., Martel A.C., Zeggane S., Chauzat M.P., Aubert M.F.A. (2005) Experimental study on the toxicity of imidacloprid given in syrup to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, Pest Manage. Sci. 61, 111–125 [CrossRef].
  • Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety of Germany (2008) Hintergrundinformation: Bienenverlust durch insektizide Saatgutbehandlungsmittel in Deutschland 2008, [online] http://www.bvl.bund.de/nn_491652/DE/08_PresseInfothek/01_Presse_und_Hintergrundinformationen/01_PI_und_HGI/PSM/2008/Hintergrundinformation_BienensterbenII.html (accessed on 13 February 2009).
  • Floris I., Prota R. (1994) Variazione di alcune caratteristiche morfometriche nella popolazione di Apis mellifera L. della Sardegna nell'ultimo ventennio, Apicoltura 9, 163–175.
  • Flynn D.F.B., Gogol-Prokurat M., Nogeire T., Molinari N., Trautman Richers B., Lin B.B., Simpson N., Mayfield M.M., DeClerck F. (2009) Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa, Ecol. Lett. 1, 22–33 [CrossRef].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (1998) The origin of west European subspecies of honeybees (Apis mellifera): New insights from microsatellite and mitochondrial data, Evolution 52, 1119–1134 [CrossRef].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Celebrano G., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (2000a) Hybrid origins of honeybees from Italy (Apis mellifera ligustica) and Sicily (A. m. sicula), Mol. Ecol. 9, 907–921 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (2000b) Molecular confirmation of a fourth lineage in honeybees from the Near East, Apidologie 31, 167–180 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Loiseau A. (2001) Genetic diversity of the honeybee in Africa: microsatellite and mitochondrial data, Heredity 86, 420–430 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Francoy T.M., Prado P.P.R., Gonçalves L.S., Costa L.D., De Jong D. (2006) Morphometric differences in a single wing cell can discriminate Apis mellifera racial types, Apidologie 37, 91–97 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Francoy T.M., Wittmann D., Drauschke M., Muller S., Steinhage V., Bezerra-Laure M.A.F., De Jong D., Goncalves L.S. (2008) Identification of Africanized honey bees through wing morphometrics: two fast and efficient procedures, Apidologie 39, 1–7 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Freitas B.M., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L., Medina L.M., Kleinert A.M.P., Galetto L., Nates-Parra G., Quezada-Euán J.J.G. (2009) Diversity, threats and conservation of bees in the Neotropics, Apidologie 40, 332–346 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Fries I., Feng F., da Silva A., Slemenda S.B., Pieniazek N.J. (1996) Nosema ceranae n. sp. (Microspora, Nosematidae), morphological and molecular characterization of a microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Eur. J. Protistol. 32, 356–365.
  • Ftayeh A., Meixner M., Fuchs S. (1994) Morphometrical investigation in Syrian honeybees, Apidologie 25, 396–401 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Gallai N., Salles J.M., Settele J., Vaissière B.E. (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline, Ecol. Econ. 68, 810–821 [CrossRef].
  • Garnery L., Cornuet J.-M., Solignac M. (1992). Evolutionary history of the honey bee Apis mellifera inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis, Mol. Ecol. 1 145–154.
  • Garnery L., Solignac M., Celebrano G., Cornuet J.M. (1993) A simple test using restricted PCR-amplified mitochondrial-DNA to study the genetic-structure of Apis mellifera L., Experientia 49, 1016–1021 [CrossRef].
  • Garnery L., Mosshine E.H., Oldroyd B.P., Cornuet J.M. (1995) Mitochondrial-DNA variation in Moroccan and Spanish honey-bee populations, Mol. Ecol. 4, 465–471 [CrossRef].
  • Garnery L., Franck P., Baudry E., Vautrin D., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M. (1998a) Genetic diversity of the west European honey bee (Apis mellifera and A. m. iberica). I. Mitochondrial DNA, Genet. Sel. Evol. 30, 49–74 [CrossRef].
  • Garnery L., Franck P., Baudry E. Vautrin D., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M. (1998b) Genetic biodiversity of the West European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera iberica). II. Microsatellite loci, Genet. Sel. Evol. 30, 49–74 [CrossRef].
  • Goetze G. (1940) Die beste Biene, Liedlof Loth Michaelis, Leipzig.
  • Greatti M., Barbattini R., Stravisi A., Sabatini A.G., Rossi S. (2006) Presence of the a.i. imidacloprid on vegetation near corn fields sown with Gaucho $^{\tiny\textregistered}$ dressed seeds, Bull. Insectology 59, 99–103.
  • Hall H.G., Smith D.R. (1991) Distinguishing African and European honey bee matrilines using amplified mitochondrial DNA, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 88, 4548–4552 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E. (1996) Morphometric and pheromonal analyses of Apis mellifera L. along a transect from the Sahara to the Pyrenees, Apidologie 27, 35–45 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Higes M., Martín-Hernández R., Botías C., Garrido Bailón E., González-Porto A.V., Barrios L., del Nozal M.J., Bernal J.L., Jiménez J.J., García Palencia P., Meana A., (2008) How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee collapse, Environ. Microbiol. 10, 2659–2669 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Hood W.M. (2004) The Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida: A Review, Bee World 85, 51–59.
  • Huryn V.M.B. (1997) Ecological impacts of introduced honey bees, Q. Rev. Biol. 72, 275–297 [CrossRef].
  • Ivanova E.N., Staykova T.A., Bouga M. (2007) Allozyme variability in honey bee populations from some mountainous regions in the southwest of Bulgaria, J. Apic. Res. 46, 3–7 [CrossRef].
  • Jaffè R., Dietemann V., Crewe R.M., Moritz R.F.A. (2009) Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: An insight into the population dynamics of wild African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata), Mol. Ecol. 18, 1511–1522 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Jensen A.B., Pedersen B.V. (2005) Honeybee Conservation: a case story from Læsø island, Denmark, in: Lodesani M., Costa C. (Eds.), Beekeeping and conserving biodiversity of honeybee. Sustainable bee breeding. Theoretial and practical guide. Northern Bee Books, Hebden Bridge, pp. 142–164.
  • Jensen A.B., Palmer K.A., Boomsma J.J., Pedersen B.V. (2005) Varying degrees of Apis mellifera ligustica introgression in protected populations of the black honeybee, Apis mellifera mellifera, in northwest Europe, Mol. Ecol. 14, 93–106 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Kandemir I., Kence A. (1995) Allozyme variability in a central Anatolian honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) population, Apidologie 26, 503–510 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Kandemir I., Kence M., Kence A. (2000) Genetic and morphometric variation in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) populations of Turkey, Apidologie 31, 343–356 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Kandemir I., Kence M., Kence A. (2005) Morphometric and electrophoretic variation in different honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) populations, Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29, 885–890.
  • Kandemir I., Meixner M.D., Ozkan A., Sheppard W.S. (2006) Genetic characterization of honey bee (Apis mellifera cypria) populations in northern Cyprus, Apidologie 37, 547–555 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Kauhausen-Keller D., Ruttner F., Keller R. (1997) Morphometric studies on the microtaxonomy of the species Apis mellifera L., Apidologie 28, 295–307 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Kevan P.G., Phillips T.P. (2001) The economic impacts of pollinator declines: an approach to assessing the consequences, Conserv. Ecol. 5, 8.
  • Koeniger N., Koeniger G. (2000) Reproductive isolation among species of the genus Apis, Apidologie 31, 313–339 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Kozmus P., Jevrosima S., Stanimirovic Z., Stojic V., Kulisic Z., Meglic V. (2007) Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in honey bees (Apis mellifera) from Serbia, Acta Vet. Beograd 57, 465–476.
  • Kraus B., Page R.E. (1995) Effect of Varroa jacobsoni (Mesostigmata Varroidae) on feral Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in California, Environ. Entomol. 24, 1473–1480.
  • Kremen C., Williams N.M., Thorp R.W. (2002) Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 16812–16816 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Lattorff H.M.G., Moritz R.F.A., Crewe R.M., Solignac M. (2007) Control of reproductive dominance by the thelytoky locus in honeybees, Biol. Lett. 3, 292–295 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Li J.K., Wang T., Zhang Z.H., Pan Y. (2007) Proteomic analysis of royal jelly from three strains of western honeybees (Apis mellifera), J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 8411–8422 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Lodesani M., Costa C. (2003) Bee breeding and genetics in Europe, Bee World 84, 69–85.
  • Louveaux J., Albisetti M., Delangue M., Theurkauff M. (1966) Les modalités de l'adaptation des abeilles (Apis mellifica L.) au milieu naturel, Ann. Abeille 9, 323–350 [CrossRef].
  • Malone L., Pham-Delègue M. (2001) Effects of transgene products on honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.), Apidologie 32, 287–304 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Marletto F., Manino A., Pedrini P. (1984a) Intergradazione fra sottospecie di Apis mellifera L. in Liguria, Apic. Mod. 75, 159–163.
  • Marletto F., Manino A., Balboni G. (1984b) Indagini biometriche su popolazioni di Apis mellifera L. delle Alpi occidentali, Apic. Mod. 75, 213–223.
  • Matheson A., Buchmann S.L., O'Toole C., Westrich P., Williams I.H. (1996) The conservation of bees, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace, London.
  • Meixner M.D., Sheppard W.S., Poklukar J. (1993) Asymmetrical distribution of a mitochondrial-DNA polymorphism between two introgressing honey-bee subspecies, Apidologie 24, 147–153 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Meixner M.D., Worobik M., Wilde J., Fuchs S., Koeniger N. (2007) Apis mellifera mellifera in eastern Europe-morphometric variation and determination of its range limits, Apidologie 38, 191–197 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Miguel I., Iriondo M., Garnery L., Sheppard W.S., Estonba A. (2007) Gene flow within the M evolutionary lineage of Apis mellifera: role of the Pyrenees, isolation by distance and post-glacial re-colonization routes in the western Europe, Apidologie 38, 141–155 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Baden-Württemberg (2008) Abschlussbericht Beizung and Bienenschäde, [online] http://www.mlr.baden-wuerttemberg.de/mlr/allgemein/Abschlussbericht_Bienenschaeden.pdf (accessed on 13 February 2009).
  • Moritz R.F.A., Hawkins C.F., Crozier R.H., Mackinley A.G. (1986) A mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in honeybees (Apis mellifera), Experientia 42, 322–324 [CrossRef].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Härtel S., Neumann P. (2005) Global invasions of the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the consequences for biodiversity, Ecoscience 12, 289–301 [CrossRef].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Kraus F.B., Kryger P., Crewe R.M. (2007a) The size of wild honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) and its implications for the conservation of honeybees, J. Insect Conserv. 11, 391–397 [CrossRef].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Dietemann V., Crewe R.M. (2007b) Determining colony densities in wild honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) with linked microsatellite DNA markers, J. Insect Conserv. 12, 455–459 [CrossRef].
  • Murray T.E., Kuhlmann M., Potts S.G. (2009). Conservation ecology of bees: populations, species and communities, Apidologie 40, 211–236.
  • Nazzi F. (1992a) Morphometric analysis of honey bees from an area of racial hybridization in northeastern Italy, Apidologie 23, 89–96 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Nazzi F. (1992b) Fluctuating forewing characters in hybrid honey bees from north-eastern Italy, J. Apic. Res. 31, 27–31.
  • Neumann P., Moritz R.F.A., Van Praagh J.P. (1999a) Queen mating frequency in different types of honey bee mating apiaries, J. Apic. Res. 38, 11–18.
  • Neumann P., Van Praagh J.P., Moritz R.F.A., Dustmann J.H. (1999b) Testing reliability of a potential island mating apiary using DNA microsatellites, Apidologie 30, 257–276 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Oldroyd B.P., Nanork P. (2009) Conservation of Asian honey bees, Apidologie 40, 296–312 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Orantes-Bermejo F.J., García-Fernández P. (1995) Morphological variability of Apis mellifera iberica in different apiaries of southern Spain, J. Apic. Res. 34, 23–30.
  • Paini D.R. (2004) Impact of the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on native bees: A review, Austral. Ecol. 29, 399–407 [CrossRef].
  • Palmer K.A., Oldroyd B.P. (2000) Evolution of multiple mating in the genus Apis, Apidologie 31, 235–248 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Paxton R.J., Klee J., Korpela S., Fries I. (2007) Nosema ceranae has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998 and may be more virulent than Nosema apis, Apidologie 38, 558–565 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Peiren N., Vanrobaeys F., de Graaf D.C., Devreese B., Beeumen J.V., Jacobs F.J. (2005) The protein composition of honeybee venom reconsidered by a proteomic approach, Biochim. Biophys. Acta-Prot. Prot. 1752, 1–5 [CrossRef].
  • Radloff S.E., Hepburn H.R., Hepburn C., De la Rúa P. (2001) Morphometric affinities and population structure of honeybees of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Apic. Res. 40, 97–103.
  • Randi E. (2008) Detecting hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, Mol. Ecol. 17, 285–293 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Reusch H.B.H., Wood T.E. (2007) Molecular ecology of global change, Mol. Ecol. 16, 3973–3992 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Rinderer T.E., Oldroyd B.P., Sheppard, W.S. (1993) Africanized bees in the U.S., Sci. Am. 269, 52–58.
  • Robinson G.E., Evans J.D., Maleszka R., Robertson H.M., Weaver D.B., Worley K., Gibbs R.A., Weinstock G.M. (2006) Sweetness and light: illuminating the honey bee genome, Insect Mol. Biol. 15, 535–539 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Rortais A., Arnold G., Halm M.-P., Touffet-Briens F. (2005) Modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides: estimated amounts of contaminated pollen and nectar consumed by different categories of bees, Apidologie 36, 71–83 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Rüppell O., Pankiw T., Page R.E. (2004) Pleiotropy, Epistasis and New QTL: The Genetic Architecture of Honey Bee Foraging Behavior, J. Hered. 95, 481–491 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Ruttner F. (1988) Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
  • Ruttner F. (1992) Naturgeschichte der Honigbienen, Ehrenwirth, Munich.
  • Ruttner F., Tassencourt L., Louveaux J. (1978) Biometrical statistical analysis of the geographic variability of Apis mellifera L. I: Materials and methods, Apidologie 9, 363–382 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Schmuck R., Schoning R., Stork A., Schramel O. (2001) Risk posed to honeybees (Apis mellifera L. Hymenoptera) by an imidacloprid seed dressing of sunflowers, Pest Manage. Sci. 57, 225–238 [CrossRef].
  • Schonleben S., Sickmann A., Mueller M.J., Reinders J. (2007) Proteome analysis of Apis mellifera royal jelly, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389, 1087–1093 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Schroder S., Wittmann D., Drescher W., Roth V., Steinhage V., Cremers A.B. (2002) The new key to bee: Automated identification by image analysis of wings, in: Kevan P., Imperatriz Fonseca V.L. (Eds.), Pollinating bees – the Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature, Ministry of Environment, Brasilia.
  • Schneider S.S., DeGrandi-Hoffman G., Smith D.R. (2004) The African honey bee: factors contributing to a successful biological invasion, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 49, 351–376 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Shaibi T., Lattorff H.M.G., Moritz, R.F.A. (2008) A microsatellite DNA toolkit for studying population structure in Apis mellifera, Mol. Ecol. Resources 8, 1034–1036 [CrossRef].
  • Sheppard W.S. (1997) Subspecies of Apis mellifera, in: Morse R.A., Flottum K. (Eds.), Honey Bee Pests, Predators and Diseases, A.I. Root Co., Medina, OH, USA, pp. 519–533.
  • Sheppard W.S., Berlocher S.H. (1984) Enzyme polymorphisms in Apis mellifera mellifera from Norway, J. Apic. Res. 23, 64–69.
  • Sheppard W.S., Berlocher S.H. (1985) New allozyme variability in Italian honey bees, J. Hered. 76, 45–48 [PubMed].
  • Sheppard W.S., Meixner M. (2003) Apis mellifera pomonella, a new honey bee subspecies from Central Asia, Apidologie 34, 367–375 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Sheppard W.S., Smith D.R. (2000) Identification of African-Derived Bees in the Americas: A Survey of Methods, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 93, 159–176 [CrossRef].
  • Sheppard W.S., Rinderer T.E., Meixner M.D., Yoo H.R., Stelzer J.A., Schiff N.M., Kamel S.M., Krell R. (1996) Hinfl variation in mitochondrial DNA of old world honey bee subspecies, J. Hered. 87, 35–40.
  • Sheppard W.S., Arias M.C., Grech A., Meixner M.D. (1997) Apis mellifera ruttneri, a new honey bee subspecies from Malta, Apidologie 28, 287–293 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Sheppard W.S., Rinderer T.E., Garnery L., Shimanuki H. (1999) Analysis of Africanized honey bee mitochondrial DNA reveals further diversity of origin, Genet. Mol. Biol. 22, 73–75.
  • Sinacori A., Rinderer T.E., Lancaster V., Sheppard W.S. (1998) A morphological and mitochondrial assessment of Apis mellifera from Palermo, Italy, Apidologie 29, 481–490 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Smith D.R., Glenn T.C. (1995) Allozyme polymorphisms in Spanish honeybees (Apis mellifera iberica), J. Hered. 86, 12–16 [PubMed].
  • Smith D.R., Crespi B.J., Bookstein F.L. (1997) Fluctuating asymmetry in the honey bee, Apis mellifera: effects of ploidy and hybridization, J. Evol. Biol. 10, 551–574 [CrossRef].
  • Soland-Reckeweg G., Heckel G., Neumann P., Fluri P., Excoffier L. (2008) Gene flow in admixed populations and implications for the conservation of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, J. Insect Conserv., in press, DOI:10.1007/s10841-008-9175-0.
  • Solignac M., Vautrin D., Loiseau A., Mougel F., Baudry E. (2003) Five hundred and fifty microsatellite markers for the study of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) genome, Mol. Ecol. Notes 3, 307–311 [CrossRef].
  • Solignac M., Mougel F., Vautrin D., Monnerot M., Cornuet J.M. (2007) A third-generation microsatellite-based linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and its comparison with the sequence-based physical map, Genome Biol. 8, R66 [CrossRef] [PubMed], DOI:10.1186/gb-2007-8-4-r66.
  • Southwick E.E., Southwick L. (1992) Estimating the economic value of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as agricultural pollinators in the United States, J. Econ. Entomol. 85, 621–633.
  • Steinhage V., Arbuckle T., Schröder S., Cremers A.B., Wittmann D. (2001) ABIS: Automated Identification of Bee Species, BIOLOG. Workshop, German Programme on Biodiversity and Global Change, Status Report, pp. 194–195.
  • Steinhage V., Schröder S., Lampe K.H., Cremers A.B. (2007) Automated extraction and analysis of morphological features for species identification, in: MacLeod N. (Ed.), Automated Object Identification in Systematics: Theory, Approaches, and Applications, pp. 115–129.
  • Strange J.P., Garnery L., Sheppard W.S. (2007) Persistence of the Landes ecotype of Apis mellifera mellifera in southwest France: confirmation of a locally adaptive annual brood cycle trait, Apidologie 38, 259–267 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Strange J.P., Garnery L., Sheppard W.S. (2008) Morphological and molecular characterization of the Landes honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ecotype for genetic conservation, J. Insect Conserv. 12, 527–537 [CrossRef].
  • Sušnik S., Kozmus P., Poklukar J., Megli V. (2004) Molecular characterisation of indigenous Apis mellifera carnica in Slovenia, Apidologie 35, 623–636 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium (2006) Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Nature 443, 931–949 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Thompson H.M. (2003) Behavioural effects of pesticides in bees – Their potential for use in risk assessment, Ecotoxicology 12, 317–330 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Tofilski A. (2004) DrawWing, a program for numerical description of insect wings, J. Insect Sci. 4, 17–21 [PubMed].
  • van Engelsdorp D., Underwood R., Caron D., Hayes J. (2007) An estimate of managed colony losses in the winter of 2006-2007: a report commissioned by the apiary inspectors of America, Am. Bee J. 147, 599–603.
  • Whitfield C.W., Behura S.K., Berlocher S.H., Clark A.G., Johnston J.S., Sheppard W.S., Smith D.R., Suarez A.V., Weaver D., Tsutsui N.D. (2006) Thrice out of Africa: Ancient and recent expansions of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, Science 314, 642–645 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Zander E. (1909) Tierische Parasiten als Krankenheitserreger bei der Biene, Münch. Bienenztg. 31, 196–204.
  • Zayed A. (2009) Bee genetics and conservation, Apidologie 40, 237–262 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Zayed A., Whitfield W.C. (2008) A genome-wide signature of positive selection in ancient and recent invasive expansions of the honey bee Apis mellifera, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3421–3426 [CrossRef] [PubMed].