Free access
Issue
Apidologie
Volume 40, Number 3, May-June 2009
Bee conservation
Page(s) 237 - 262
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009026
Published online 07 July 2009
References of  Apidologie 40 (2009) 237–262
  • Adams J., Rothman E.D., Kerr W.E., Paulino Z.L. (1977) Estimation of the number of sex alleles and queen matings from diploid male frequencies in a population of Apis mellifera, Genetics 86, 583–596 [PubMed].
  • Agoze M.E., Drezen J.M., Renalt S., Preiquet G. (1994) Analysis of the reproductive potential of diploid males in the wasp Diadromus pulchellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Bull. Entomol. Res. 84, 213–218 [CrossRef].
  • Allen-Wardell G., Bernhardt P., Bitner R., Burquez A., Buchmann S.L., Cane J.H., Cox P.A., Dalton V., Feinsinger P., Ingram M., Inouye D.W., Jones C.E., Kennedy K., Kevan P.G., Koopowitz H., Medellin R., Medellin-Morales S., Nabhan G.P. (1998) The potential consequences of pollinator declines on the conservation of biodiversity and stability of food crop yields, Conserv. Biol. 12, 8–17 [CrossRef].
  • Antolin M.F. (1999) A genetic perspective on mating systems and sex ratios of parasitoid wasps, Res. Popul. Ecol. 41, 29–37 [CrossRef].
  • Armbruster P., Reed D.H. (2005) Inbreeding depression in benign and stressful environments, Heredity 95, 235–242 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Ayabe T., Hoshiba H., Ono M. (2004) Cytological evidence for triploid males and females in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, Chromosome Res. 12, 215–223 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Beveridge M., Simmons L.W. (2006) Panmixia: an example from Dawson's burrowing bee (Amegilla dawsoni) (Hymenoptera: Anthophorini), Mol. Ecol. 15, 951–957 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Beveridge M., Simmons L.W., Alcock J. (2006) Genetic breeding system and investment patterns within nests of Dawson's burrowing bee (Amegilla dawsoni) (Hymenoptera: Anthophorini), Mol. Ecol. 15, 3459–3467 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Beye M., Hasselmann M., Fondrk M.K., Page R.E., Omholt S.W. (2003) The gene csd is the primary signal for sexual development in the honey bee and encodes a new SR-type protein, Cell 114, 419–429 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Bienefeld K., Reinhardt F., Pirchner F. (1989) Inbreeding effects of queen and workers on colony traits in the honey bee, Apidologie 20, 439–450 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Biesmeijer J.C., Roberts S.P.M., Reemer M., Ohlemuller R., Edwards M., Peeters T., Schaffers A.P., Potts S.G., Kleukers R., Thomas C.D., Settele J., Kunin W.E. (2006) Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands, Science 313, 351–354 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Biswas S., Akey J.M. (2006) Genomic insights into positive selection, Trends Genet. 22, 437–446 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Blanchetot A., Packer L. (1992) Genetic variability in the social bee Lasioglossum marginatum and a cryptic underscribed sibling species, as detected by DNA fingerprinting and allozyme electrophoresis, Insect Mol. Biol. 1, 89–97 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Brook B.W., Burgman M.A., Akçakaya H.R., O'Grady J.J., Frankham R. (2002a) Critiques of PVA ask the wrong questions: throwing the heuristic baby out with the numerical bath water, Conserv. Biol. 16, 262–263 [CrossRef].
  • Brook B.W., Tonkyn D.W., O'Grady J.J., Frankham R. (2002b) Contribution of inbreeding to extinction risk in threatened species, Conserv. Ecol. 6, 16.
  • Brown P.O., Botstein D. (1999) Exploring the new world of the genome with DNA microarrays, Nat. Genet. 21, 33–37 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Byrne A., Fitzpatrick Ú. (2009) Bee conservation policy at the global, regional and national levels, Apidologie 40, 194–210 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Camargo C.A. (1979) Sex determination in bees. XI. Production of diploid males and sex determination in Melipona quadrifasciata, J. Apic. Res. 18, 77–84.
  • Cameron E.C., Franck P., Oldroyd B.P. (2004) Genetic structure of nest aggregations and drone congregations of the southeast Asian stingless bee Trigona collina, Mol. Ecol. 13, 2357–2364 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Cane J.H. (2001) Habitat fragmentation and native bees: a premature verdict? Conserv. Ecol. 5, 3.
  • Cane J.H., Tepedino V.J. (2001) Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence, and consequences, Conserv. Ecol. 5, 1.
  • Carman G.M., Packer L. (1997) A cryptic species allied to Halictus ligatus Say (Hymenoptera; Halictidae) detected by allozyme electrophoresis, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 69, 168–176.
  • Carvalho G.A. (2001) The number of sex alleles (CSD) in a bee population and its practical importance (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Hymenoptera Res. 10, 10–15.
  • Chaline N., Ratnieks F.L.W., Raine N.E., Badcock N.S., Burke T. (2004) Non-lethal sampling of honey bee, Apis mellifera, DNA using wing tips, Apidologie 35, 311–318 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Chapman R.E., Wang J., Bourke A.F.G. (2003) Genetic analysis of spatial foraging patterns and resource sharing in bumble bee pollinators, Mol. Ecol. 12, 2801–2808 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Charlesworth B., Charlesworth D. (1999) The genetic basis of inbreeding depression, Genet. Res. 74, 329–340 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Colla S.R., Packer L. (2008) Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidea), with special focus on Bombus affinis Cresson, Biodivers. Conserv. 17, 1379–1391 [CrossRef].
  • Colla S.R., Otterstatter M.C., Gegear R.J., Thomson J.D. (2006) Plight of the bumblebee: Pathogen spillover from commercial to wild populations, Biol. Conserv. 129, 461–467 [CrossRef].
  • Cook J.M. (1993) Sex determination in the Hymenoptera: a review of models and evidence, Heredity 71, 421–435 [CrossRef].
  • Cook J.M., Crozier R.H. (1995) Sex determination and population biology of the Hymenoptera, Trends Ecol. Evol. 10, 281–286 [CrossRef].
  • Cornuet J.M. (1980) Rapid estimation of the number of sex alleles in panmictic honeybee populations, J. Apic. Res. 19, 3–5.
  • Cornuet J.M., Luikart G. (1996) Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency data, Genetics 144, 2001–2014 [PubMed].
  • Cowan D.P., Stahlhut J.K. (2004) Functionally reproductive diploid and haploid males in an inbreeding hymenopteran with complementary sex determination, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 10374–10379 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Cowell J.K., Hawthorn L. (2007) The application of microarray technology to the analysis of the cancer genome, Curr. Mol. Med. 7, 103–120 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Cox-Foster D.L., Conlan S., Holmes E.C., Palacios G., Evans J.D., Moran N.A., Quan P.-L., Briese T., Hornig M., Geiser D.M., Martinson V., vanEngelsdorp D., Kalkstein A.L., Drysdale A., Hui J., Zhai J., Cui L., Hutchison S.K., Simons J.F., Egholm M., Pettis J.S., Lipkin W.I. (2007) A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder, Science 318, 283–287 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Crnokrak P., Barrett S.C. (2002) Perspective: purging the genetic load: a review of the experimental evidence, Evolution 12, 2347–2358.
  • Crozier R.H. (1976a) Counter-intuitive property of effective population size, Nature 262, 384 [CrossRef].
  • Crozier R.H. (1976b) Why Male-Haploid and Sex-Linked Genetic Systems Seem to Have Unusually Sex-Limited Mutational Genetic Loads, Evolution 30, 623–624 [CrossRef].
  • Crozier R.H. (1977) Evolutionary genetics of the hymenoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 22, 263–288 [CrossRef].
  • Crozier R.H. (1985) Adaptive consequences of male-haploidy, in: Helle W., Sabelis M.W. (Eds.), Spider Mites: their biology, natural enemies and control, Elsevier Science Publisher B.V. Amsterdam, pp. 201–222.
  • Danforth B.N. (1999) Phylogeny of the bee genus Lasioglossum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) based on mitocondrial COI sequence data, Syst. Entomol. 24, 377–393 [CrossRef].
  • Danforth B.N., Mitchell P.L., Packer L. (1998) Mitochondrial DNA differentiation between two cryptic Halictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) species, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91, 387–391.
  • Danforth B.N., Ji S., Ballard L.J. (2003) Gene flow and population structure in an oligolectic desert bee, Macrotera (Macroteropsis) portalis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 76, 221–235.
  • Danks H.V. (1971) Nest mortality factors in stem-nesting aculeate Hymenoptera, J. Anim. Ecol. 40, 79–82 [CrossRef].
  • Darvill B., Knight M.E., Goulson D. (2004) Use of genetic markers to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest density, Oikos 107, 471–478 [CrossRef].
  • Darvill B., Ellis J.S., Lye G.C., Goulson D. (2006) Population structure and inbreeding in a rare and declining bumblebee, Bombus muscorum (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Mol. Ecol. 15, 601–611 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • De Boer J.G., Ode P.J., Vet L.E.M., Whitfield J., Heimpel G.E. (2007) Complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp Cotesia vestalis (C. plutellae), J. Evol. Biol. 20, 340–348 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • De la Rúa P., Jaffé R., Dall'Olio R., Muñoz I. Serrano J. (2009) Biodiversity, conservation and current threats to European honeybees, Apidologie 40, 263–284 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Dias B.S.F., Raw A., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. (1999) International pollinators initiative: The São Paulo declaration on pollinators., Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, Brasilia. [online] http://www.cbd.int/doc/case-studies/agr/cs-agr-pollinator-rpt.pdf (accessed on 2 February 2009).
  • Dick C.W., Roubik D.W., Gruber K.F., Bermingham E. (2004) Long-distance gene flow and cross-Andean dispersal of lowland rainforest bees (Apidae: Euglossini) revealed by comparative mitochondrial DNA phylogeography, Mol. Ecol. 13, 3775–3785 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Duchateau M.J., Hoshiba H., Velthuis H.H.W. (1994) Diploid males in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris: sex determination, sex alleles and viability, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 71, 263–269 [CrossRef].
  • Eickwort G.C., Ginsberg H.S. (1980) Foraging and mating behavior in Apoidea, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 25, 421–446 [CrossRef].
  • Ellegren H., Sheldon B.C. (2008) Genetic basis of fitness differences in natural populations, Nature 452, 169–175 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Ellis J.S., Knight M.E., Darvill B., Goulson D. (2006) Extremely low effective population sizes, genetic structuring and reduced genetic diversity in a threatened bumblebee species, Bombus sylvarum (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Mol. Ecol. 15, 4375–4386 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Else G., Felton J., Stubbs A. (1978) The Conservation of Bees and Wasps, Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough.
  • Estoup A., Scholl A., Pouvreau A., Solignac M. (1995) Monoandry and polyandry in bumble bees (Hymenoptera; Bombinae) as evidenced by highly variable microsatellites, Mol. Ecol. 4, 89–94.
  • Estoup A., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M., Goudet J., Scholl A. (1996) Genetic differentiation of continental and island populations of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Europe, Mol. Ecol. 5, 19–31 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Excoffier L., Heckel G. (2006) Computer programs for population genetics data analysis: a survival guide, Nat. Rev. Genet. 7, 745–758 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Falconer D.S., Mackay T.F.C. (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, Longman, Essex, UK.
  • Fisher R.A. (1930) The Genetic Theory of Natural Selection, Dover, New York.
  • Fitzpatrick U., Murray M.G., Paxton R.J., Breen J., Cotton D., Santorum V., Brown M.J.F. (2006) Rarity and decline in bumblebees - A test of causes and correlates in the Irish fauna, Biol. Conserv. 136, 185–194 [CrossRef].
  • Fontaine C., Dajoz I., Meriguet J., Loreau M. (2006) Functional Diversity of Plant-Pollinator Interaction Webs Enhances the Persistence of Plant Communities, PLoS Biol. 4, e1.
  • Franck P., Cameron E., Good G., Rasplus J.Y., Oldroyd B.P. (2004) Nest architecture and genetic differentiation in a species complex of Australian stingless bees, Mol. Ecol. 13, 2317–2331 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Frankham R. (1995a) Effective population size/adult population size ratios in wildlife: a review, Genet. Res. 66, 95–107.
  • Frankham R. (1995b) Inbreeding and extinction: a threshold effect, Conserv. Biol. 9, 792–799 [CrossRef].
  • Frankham R. (1998) Inbreeding and extinction: island populations, Conserv. Biol. 12, 665–675 [CrossRef].
  • Frankham R. (2005) Genetics and extinction, Biol. Conserv. 126, 131–140 [CrossRef].
  • Frankham R., Ballou J.D., Briscoe D.A. (2002) Introduction to conservation genetics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Franzén M., Larsson M. (2007) Pollen harvesting and reproductive rates in specialized solitary bees, Ann. Zool. Fenn. 44, 405–414.
  • Gadau J., Gerloff C.U., Krüger N., Chan H., Schmid-Hempel P., Wile A., Page R.E.J. (2001) A linkage analysis of sex determination in Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Hered. 87, 234–242 [CrossRef].
  • Gaggiotti O.E. (2003) Genetic threats to population persistence, Ann. Zool. Fenn. 40, 155–168.
  • Gerloff C.U., Schmid-Hempel P. (2005) Inbreeding depression and family variation in a social insect, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Oikos 111, 67–80 [CrossRef].
  • Gibbs J. (2009) Integrative taxonomy identifies new (and old) species in the Lasioglossum (Dialictus) tegulare (Robertson) species group (Hymenoptera, Halictidae), Zootaxa 2032, 1–38.
  • Gibson G. (2002) Microarrays in ecology and evolution: a preview, Mol. Ecol. 11, 17–24 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Gilpin M.E. (1991) The genetic effective size of a metapopulation, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 42, 165–175 [CrossRef].
  • Glémin S. (2003) How are deleterious mutations purged? Drift versus nonrandom mating, Evolution 57, 2678–2687 [PubMed].
  • Goulson D., Lye G.C., Darvil B. (2008) Decline and conservation of bumble bees, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 53, 191–208 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Green C.L., Oldroyd B.P. (2002) Queen mating frequency and maternity of males in the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria Smith, Insectes Soc. 49, 196–202 [CrossRef].
  • Grixti J.C., Packer L. (2006) Changes in the bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of an old field site in southern Ontario, revisited after 34 years, Can. Entomol. 138, 147–164 [CrossRef].
  • Grixti J.C., Wong L.T., Cameron S.A., Favret C. (2009) Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest, Biol. Conserv. 142, 75–84 [CrossRef].
  • Hanski I., Saccheri I. (2006) Molecular-Level Variation Affects Population Growth in a Butterfly Metapopulation, PLoS Biol. 4, e129.
  • Harbo J.R., Harris J.W. (1999) Heritability in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of characteristics associated with resistance to Varroa jacobsoni (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 261–265.
  • Hasselmann M., Gempe T., Schiott M., Nunes-Silva C.G., Otte M., Beye M. (2008) Evidence for the evolutionary nascence of a novel sex determination pathway in honeybees, Nature 454, 519–522 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Hebert P.N.D., Ratnasingham S., DeWaard J.R. (2003) Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species, Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B Biol. Sci. 270, S96–S99 [CrossRef].
  • Hedrick P.W. (2000) Genetics of Populations, Second edn, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.
  • Hedrick P.W. (2004) Recent developments in conservation genetics, For. Ecol. Manage. 197, 3–19 [CrossRef].
  • Hedrick P.W., Gilpin M.E. (1997) Genetic effective size of a metapopulation, in: Hanski I.A., Gilpin M.E. (Eds.), Metapopulation biology: ecology, genetics, and evolution, Academic Press Inc. San Diego, USA, pp. 165–181.
  • Hedrick P.W., Parker J.D. (1997) Evolutionary genetics and genetic variation of haplodiploids and X-lined genes, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28, 55–83 [CrossRef].
  • Hedrick P.W., Kalinowski S.T. (2000) Inbreeding depression in conservation biology, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31, 139–162 [CrossRef].
  • Hedrick P.W., Gadau J., Page R.E.J. (2006) Genetic sex determination and extinction, Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 55–57 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Heimpel G.E., de Boer J.G. (2008) Sex determination in the Hymenoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 53, 209–230 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Henter H.J. (2003) Inbreeding depression and haplodiploidy: experimental measures in a parasitoid and comparisons across diploid and haplodiploid insect taxa, Evolution 57, 1793–1803.
  • Herrmann F., Westphal C., Moritz R.F.A., Steffan-Dewenter I. (2007) Genetic diversity and mass resources promote colony size and forager densities of a social bee (Bombus pascuorum) in agricultural landscapes, Mol. Ecol. 16, 1167–1178 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Holehouse K.A., Hammond R.L., Bourke A.F.G. (2003) Non-lethal sampling of DNA from bumble bees for conservation genetics, Insectes Soc. 50, 277–285 [CrossRef].
  • Holloway A.K., Heimpel G.E., Strand M.R., Antolin M.F. (1999) Survival of diploid males in Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 92, 110–116.
  • Jacquard A. (1975) Inbreeding: One word, several meanings, Theor. Popul. Biol. 7, 338–363 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Keller L.F., Waller D.M. (2002) Inbreeding effects in wild populations, Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 230–241 [CrossRef].
  • Kerr W.E. (1987) Sex determination in bees. XXI. Number of XO-heteroalleles in a natural population of Melipona compressipes fasciculata (Apidae), Insectes Soc. 34, 274–279 [CrossRef].
  • Kerr W.E. (1997) Sex determination in honey bees (Apinae and Meliponinae) and its consequences, Braz. J. Genet. 20, 4.
  • Kim S., Misra A. (2007) SNP genotyping: Technologies and biomedical applications, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 9, 289–320 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Klein A.M., Vaissière B.E., Cane J.H., Steffan-Dewenter I., Cunningham S.A., Kremen C., Tscharntke T. (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., Ser. B Biol. Sci. 274, 303–313 [CrossRef].
  • Knight M.E., Martin A.P., Bishop S., Osborne J.L., Hale R.J., Sanderson R.A., Goulson D. (2005) An interspecific comparison of foraging range and nest density of four bumblebee (Bombus) species, Mol. Ecol. 14, 1811–1820 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Kosior A., Celary W., Olejniczak P., Fijal J., Król W., Solarz W., Plonka P. (2007) The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) of western and central Europe, Oryx 41, 79–88 [CrossRef].
  • Kraus F.B., Weinhold S., Moritz R.F.A. (2008) Genetic structure of drone congregations of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana, Insectes Soc. 55, 22–27 [CrossRef].
  • Kremen C., Williams N.M., Thorp R.W. (2002) Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 16812–16816 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Kremen C., Williams N.M., Aizen M.A., Gemmill-Herren B., LeBuhn G., Minckley R., Packer L., Potts S.G., Roulston T.a., Steffan-Dewenter I., Vazquez D.P., Winfree R., Adams L., Crone E.E., Greenleaf S.S., Keitt T.H., Klein A.-M., Regetz J., Ricketts T.H. (2007) Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change, Ecol. Lett. 10, 299–314 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Krieger M.J.B., Ross K.G., Chang C.W., Keller L. (1999) Frequency and origin of triploidy in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, Heredity 82, 142–150 [CrossRef].
  • Kuhlmann M., Else G.R., Dawson A., Quicke D.L.J. (2007) Molecular, biogeographical and phenological evidence for the existence of three western European sibling species in the Colletes succinctus group (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Org. Divers. Evol. 7, 155–165 [CrossRef].
  • Kukuk P.F., May B. (1990) Diploid males in a primitively eusocial bee, Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum, Evolution 44, 1522–1528 [CrossRef].
  • Lacy R.C. (1993) Vortex: a computer simulation model for population viability analysis, Wildl. Res. 20, 45–64 [CrossRef].
  • Lapidge K.L., Oldroyd B.P., Spivak M. (2002) Seven suggestive quantitative trait loci influence hygienic behavior of honey bees, Naturwissenschaften 89, 565–568 [PubMed].
  • Le Conte Y., De Vaublanc G., Crauser D., Jeanne F., Rousselle J.C., Becard J.M. (2007) Honey bee colonies that have survived Varroa destructor, Apidologie 38, 566–572 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Leberg P.L., Firmin B.D. (2008) Role of inbreeding depression and purging in captive breeding and restoration programmes, Mol. Ecol. 2008, 334–343 [CrossRef].
  • Liebert A.E., Johnson R.N., Switz G.T., Starks P.T. (2004) Triploid females and diploid males: underreported phenomena in Polistes wasps? Insectes Soc. 51, 205–211.
  • Liebert A.E., Sumana A., Starks P.T. (2005) Diploid males and their triploid offspring in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus, Biol. Lett. 1, 200–203 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Lopez-Uribe M.M., Almanza M.T., Ordonez M. (2007) Diploid male frequencies in Colombian populations of euglossine bees, Biotropica 39, 299–314.
  • Lozier J.D., Cameron S.A. (2009) Comparative genetic analyses of historical and contemporary collections highlight contrasting demographic histories for the bumble bees Bombus pensylvanicus and B. impatiens in Illinois, Mol. Ecol., doi:10.1111/j.1365.294X.2009.04160x.
  • Luikart G., England P.R. (1999) Statistical analysis of microsatellite DNA data, Trends Ecol. Evol. 14, 253–256 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Luna M.G., Hawkins B.A. (2004) Effects of Inbreeding Versus Outbreeding in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Environ. Entomol. 33, 765–775.
  • Lynch M., Conery J., Burger R. (1995) Mutation accumulation and the extinction of small populations, Am. Nat. 146, 489–518 [CrossRef].
  • Lynch M., Walsh B. (1998) Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits, Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA, USA.
  • Margulies M., Egholm M., Altman W.E., Attiya S., Bader J.S., Bemben L.A., Berka J., Braverman M.S., Chen Y.-J., Chen Z., Dewell S.B., Du L., Fierro J.M., Gomes X.V., Godwin B.C., He W., Helgesen S., Ho C.H., Irzyk G.P., Jando S.C., Alenquer M.L.I., Jarvie T.P., Jirage K.B., Kim J.-B., Knight J.R., Lanza J.R., Leamon J.H., Lefkowitz S.M., Lei M., Li J., Lohman K.L., Lu H., Makhijani V.B., McDade K.E., McKenna M.P., Myers E.W., Nickerson E., Nobile J.R., Plant R., Puc B.P., Ronan M.T., Roth G.T., Sarkis G.J., Simons J.F., Simpson J.W., Srinivasan M., Tartaro K.R., Tomasz A., Vogt K.A., Volkmer G.A., Wang S.H., Wang Y., Weiner M.P., Yu P., Begley R.F., Rothberg J.M. (2005) Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors, Nature 437, 376–380 [PubMed].
  • McCorquodale D.B., Owen R.E. (1994) Laying sequence, diploid males and nest usurpation in the leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), J. Insect. Behav. 7, 731–738 [CrossRef].
  • Michener C.D. (2000) The bees of the world, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • Michener C.D., Rettenmeyer C.W. (1956) The ethology of Andrena erythronii with comparative data on other species, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 37, 645–684.
  • Minckley R.L., Wcislo W.T., Yanega D., Buchmann S.L. (1994) Behavior and phenology of a specialist bee (Dieunomia) and sunflower (Helianthus) pollen availability, Ecology 75, 1406–1419 [CrossRef].
  • Mitchell-Olds T., Willis J.H., Goldstein D.B. (2007) Which evolutionary processes influence natural genetic variation for phenotypic traits? Nat. Rev. Genet. 8, 845–856 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Morin P.A., Luikart G., Wayne R.K. (2004) SNPs in ecology, evolution and conservation, Trends Ecol. Evol. 19, 208–216 [CrossRef].
  • Moritz C., Cicero C. (2004) DNA barcoding: promise and pitfalls, PLoS Biol. 2, e279.
  • Müller A., Diener S., Schnyder S., Stutz K., Sedivy C., Dorn S. (2006) Quantitative pollen requirements of solitary bees: Implications for bee conservation and the evolution of bee–flower relationships, Biol. Conserv. 130, 604–615 [CrossRef].
  • Murray T.E., Fitzpatrick U., Brown M.J.F., Paxton R.J. (2008) Cryptic species diversity in a widespread bumble bee complex revealed using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs, Conserv. Genet. 9, 653–666 [CrossRef].
  • Murray T.E., Kuhlmann M., Potts S.G. (2009) Conservation ecology of bees: populations, species and communities, Apidologie 40, 211–236 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Navajas M., Migeon A., Alaux C., Martin-Magniette M.L., Robinson G.E., Evans J.D., Cros-Arteil S., Crauser D., Le Conte Y. (2008) Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection, BMC Genomics 9, 301 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Neumann N.F., Galvez F. (2002) DNA microarrays and toxicogenomics: applications for ecotoxicology? Biotechnol. Adv. 20, 391–419 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Nevins J.R., Potti A. (2007) Mining gene expression profiles: expression signatures as cancer phenotypes, Nat. Rev. Genet. 8, 601–609 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Nielsen R. (2005) Molecular signatures of natural selection, Annu. Rev. Genet. 39, 197–218 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Nielsen R., Hellmann I., Hubisz M., Bustamante C., Clark A.G. (2007) Recent and ongoing selection in the human genome, Nat. Rev. Genet. 8, 857–868 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • NRC (2007) Status of pollinators in North America, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
  • Olesen J.M., Bascompte J., Dupont Y.L., Jordano P. (2007) The modularity of pollination networks, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 19891–19896 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Otterstatter M.C., Thomson J.D. (2008) Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators? PLoS ONE 3, e2771.
  • Owen R.E. (1985) The opportunity for polymorphism and genic variation in social hymenoptera with worker-produced males, Heredity 54, 25–36 [CrossRef].
  • Owen R.E., Packer L. (1994) Estimation of the proportion of diploid males in populations of Hymenoptera, Heredity 72, 219–227 [CrossRef].
  • Packer L., Owen R.E. (1990) Allozyme variation, linkage disequilibrium and diploid male production in a primitively social bee Augochlorella striata (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), Heredity 65, 241–248 [CrossRef].
  • Packer L., Owen R. (2001) Population genetic aspects of pollinator decline, Conserv. Ecol. 5, 4.
  • Packer L., Zayed A., Grixti J.C., Ruz L., Owen R.E., Vivallo F., Toro H. (2005) Conservation genetics of potentially endangered mutualisms: reduced levels of genetic variation in specialist versus generalist bees, Conserv. Biol. 19, 195–202 [CrossRef].
  • Page R.E. (1980) The evolution of multiple mating behavior by honey bee queens (Apis mellifera), Genetics 96, 263–273 [PubMed].
  • Palmer K.A., Oldroyd B.P., Quezada-Euán J.J.G., Paxton R.J., May-Itza W.D.J. (2002) Paternity frequency and maternity of males in some stingless bee species, Mol. Ecol. 11, 2107–2113 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Pamilo P., Crozier R.H. (1997) Population biology of social insect conservation, Mem. Mus. Vict. 56, 411–419.
  • Pauw A. (2007) Collapse of a pollination web in small conservation areas, Ecology 88, 1759–1769 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Paxton R.J. (2005) Male mating behaviour and mating systems of bees: an overview, Apidologie 36, 145–156 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Paxton R.J., Thorén P.A., Gyllenstrand N., Tengö J. (2000) Microsatellite DNA analysis reveals low diploid male production in a communal bee with inbreeding, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 69, 483–502 [CrossRef].
  • Paxton R.J., Bego L.R., Shah M.M., Mateus S. (2003) Low mating frequency of queens in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica and worker maternity of males, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 53, 174–181.
  • Pfrender M.E., Spitze K., Hicks J., Morgan K., Latta L., Lynch M. (2000) Lack of concordance between genetic diversity estimates at the molecular and quantitative-trait levels, Conserv. Genet. 1, 263–269 [CrossRef].
  • Plowright R.C., Pallett M.J. (1979) Worker-male conflict and inbreeding in bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Can. Entomol. 111, 289–294.
  • Quezada-Euán J.J.G., Paxton R.J., Palmer K.A., Itza W.D.M., Tay W.T., Oldroyd B.P. (2007) Morphological and molecular characters reveal differentiation in a Neotropical social bee, Melipona beecheii (Apidae: Meliponini), Apidologie 38, 247–258 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Ralls K., Ballou J. (1983) Extinction: lessons from zoos, in: Schonewald-Cox C.M., Chambers S.M., MacBryde B., Thomas L. (Eds.), Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations, Benjamin/Cummings Menlo Park, CA.
  • Ralls K., Ballou J.D., Templeton A. (1988) Estimates of lethal equivalents and the cost of inbreeding in mammals, Conserv. Biol. 2, 185–193 [CrossRef].
  • Reed D.H., Frankham R. (2001) How closely correlated are molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation? A meta-analysis, Evolution 55, 1095–1103 [PubMed].
  • Reed D.H., Frankham R. (2003) Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity, Conserv. Biol. 17, 230–237 [CrossRef].
  • Ross K.G., Fletcher D.J.C. (1986) Diploid male production - a significant colony mortality factor in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 19, 283–291 [CrossRef].
  • Roubik D.W. (2001) Ups and Downs in Pollinator Populations: When is there a Decline? Conserv. Ecol. 5, 2. [online] http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art2 (accessed on 2 February 2009).
  • Roubik D.W., Weigt L.A., Bonilla M.A. (1996) Population genetics, diploid males, and limits to social evolution of euglossine bees, Evolution 50, 931–935 [CrossRef].
  • Sabeti P.C., Schaffner S.F., Fry B., Lohmueller J., Varilly P., Shamovsky O., Palma A., Mikkelsen T.S., Altshuler D., Lander E.S. (2006) Positive natural selection in the human lineage, Science 312, 1614–1620 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Saccheri I., Kuussaari M., Kankare M., Vikman P., Fortelius W., Hanski I. (1998) Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation, Nature 392, 491–494 [CrossRef].
  • Schena M., Shalon D., Davis R.W., Brown P.O. (1995) Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray, Science 270, 467–470 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Schmid-Hempel P., Schmid-Hempel R., Brunner P.C., Seeman O.D., Allen G.R. (2007) Invasion success of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, despite a drastic genetic bottleneck, Heredity 99, 414–422 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Schremph A., Aron S., Heinze J. (2006) Sex determination and inbreeding depresion in an ant with regular sib-mating, Heredity 97, 75–80 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Shendure J., Mitra R.D., Varma C., Church G.M. (2004) Advanced sequencing technologies: methods and goals, Nat. Rev. Genet. 5, 335–344 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Simmonds F.J. (1947) Improvement of the sex ratio of a parasite by selection, Can. Entomol. 79, 41–44.
  • Spielman D., Brook B.W., Frankham R. (2004) Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 15261–15264 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Stouthamer R., Luck R.F., Werren J.H. (1992) Genetics of sex determination and the improvement of biological control using parasitoids, Environ. Entomol. 21, 427–435.
  • Stow A., Silberbauer L., Beattie A.J., Briscoe D.A. (2007) Fine-scale genetic structure and fire-created habitat patchiness in the Australian allodapine bee, Exoneura nigrescens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Hered. 98, 60–66 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Strange J.P., Knoblett J., Griswold T. (2009) DNA amplification from pin-mounted bumble bees (Bombus) in a museum collection: effects of fragment size and specimen age on successful PCR, Apidologie, DOI: 10.1051/apido/2008070.
  • Strassmann J. (2001) The rarity of multiple mating by females of social Hymenoptera, Insectes Soc. 48, 1–13 [CrossRef].
  • Strausberg R.L., Levy S., Rogers Y.-H. (2008) Emerging DNA sequencing technologies for human genomic medicine, Drug Discov. Today 13, 569–577 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Takahashi N.C., Peruquetti R.C., Del Lama M.A., de Oliveira Campos L.A. (2001) A reanalysis of diploid male frequencies in euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Evolution 55, 1897–1899 [PubMed].
  • Takahashi J., Ayabe T., Mitsuhata M., Shimizu I., Ono M. (2008) Diploid male production in a rare and locally distributed bumblebee, Bombus florilegus (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Insectes Soc. 55, 43–50 [CrossRef].
  • Tavares M.G., Dias L.A.D., Borges A.A., Lopes D.M., Busse A.H.P., Costa R.G., Salomao T.M.F., Campos L.A.D. (2007) Genetic divergence between populations of the stingless bee uruqu amarela (Melipona rufiventris group, Hymenoptera, Meliponini): Is there a new Melipona species in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais? Genet. Mol. Biol. 30, 667–675.
  • Templeton A.R., Read B. (1994) Inbreeding: one word, several meanings, much confusion, in: Loeschcke V., Tomiuk J., Jain S.K. (Eds.), Conservation Genetics, Birkhäuser-Verlag Basel, Switzerland, pp. 91–106.
  • The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium (2006) Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Nature 443, 931–949 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Twyman R.M. (2004) SNP discovery and typing technologies for pharmacogenomics, Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 4, 1423–1431 [PubMed].
  • Vamosi J.C., Knight T.M., Steets J.A., Mazer S.J., Burd M., Ashman T.-L. (2006) Pollination decays in biodiversity hotspots, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 956–961 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • van 't Veer L.J., Bernards R. (2008) Enabling personalized cancer medicine through analysis of gene-expression patterns, Nature 452, 564–570 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • van Wilgenburg E., Driessen G., Beukeboom L. (2006) Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design? Front. Zool. 3, 1–15 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Vilas C., San Miguel E., Amaro R., Garcia C. (2006) Relative contribution of inbreeding depression and eroded adaptive diversify to extinction risk in small populations of shore Campion, Conserv. Biol. 20, 229–238 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Wadlow R., Ramaswamy S. (2005) DNA microarrays in clinical cancer research, Curr. Mol. Med. 5, 111–120 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Wandeler P., Hoeck P.E.A., Keller L.F. (2007) Back to the future: museum specimens in population genetics, Trends Ecol. Evol. 22, 634–642 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Wang J. (2005) Estimation of effective population sizes from data on genetic markers, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 360, 1395–1409 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Werren J.H. (1993) The evolution of inbreeding in haplodiploid organisms, in: Thornhill N.W. (Ed.), The natural history of inbreeding and outbreeding: theoretical and empirical perspectives, The University of Chicago Press Chicago, pp. 42–59.
  • Westemeier R.L., Brawn J.D., Simpson S.A., Esker T.L., Jansen R.W., Walk J.W., Kershner E.L., Bouzat J.L., Paige K.N. (1998) Tracking the long-term decline and recovery of an isolated population, Science 282, 1695–1698 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Whitfield C.W., Band M.R., Bonaldo M.F., Kumar C.G., Liu L., Pardinas J.R., Robertson H.M., Soares M.B., Robinson G.E. (2002) Annotated Expressed Sequence Tags and cDNA Microarrays for Studies of Brain and Behavior in the Honey Bee, Genome Res. 12, 555–566 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Whitfield C.W., Behura S.K., Berlocher S.H., Clark A.G., Johnston J.S., Sheppard W.S., Smith D.R., Suarez A.V., Weaver D., Tsutsui N.D. (2006) Thrice Out of Africa: Ancient and Recent Expansions of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera, Science 314, 642–645 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Whitlock M.C., Barton N.H. (1997) The effective size of a subdivided population, Genetics 146, 427–441 [PubMed].
  • Widmer A., Schmid-Hempel P. (1999) The population genetic structure of a large temperate pollinator species, Bombus pascuorum (Scopoli) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Mol. Ecol. 8, 387–398 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Wilfert L., Gadau J., Baer B., Schmid-Hempel P. (2007a) Natural variation in the genetic architecture of a host-parasite interaction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, Mol. Ecol. 16, 1327–1339 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Wilfert L., Gadau J., Schmid-Hempel P. (2007b) The genetic architecture of immune defense and reproduction in male Bombus terrestris bumblebees, Evolution 61, 804–815 [CrossRef].
  • Williams N., Minckley R., Silviera F. (2001) Variation in native bee faunas and its implications for detecting community changes, Conserv. Ecol. 5, 7.
  • Woyke J. (1979) Sex determination in Apis cerana indica, J. Apic. Res. 18, 122–127.
  • Wu Z., Hopper K.R., Ode P.J., Fuester R.W., Chen J., Heimpel G.E. (2003) Complementary Sex Determination In Hymenopteran Parasitoids And Its Implications For Biological Control., Entomol. Sin. 10, 81–93.
  • Yokoyama S., Nei M. (1979) Population dynamics of sex-determining alleles in honey bees and self-incompatibility alleles in plants, Genetics 91, 609–626 [PubMed] [MathSciNet].
  • Zayed A. (2004) Effective population size in Hymenoptera with complementary sex determination, Heredity 93, 627–630 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Zayed A., Packer L. (2001) High levels of diploid male production in a primitively eusocial bee (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), Heredity 87, 631–636 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Zayed A., Packer L. (2005) Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10742–10746 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Zayed A., Packer L. (2007) The population genetics of a solitary oligolectic sweat bee, Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), Heredity 99, 397–405 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Zayed A., Whitfield C.W. (2008) A genome-wide signature of positive selection in ancient and recent invasive expansions of the honey bee Apis mellifera, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3421–3426 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Zayed A., Roubik D.W., Packer L. (2004) Use of diploid male frequency data as an indicator of pollinator decline, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B Biol. Sci. 271, S9–S12 [CrossRef].
  • Zayed A., Packer L., Grixti J.C., Ruz L., Toro H., Owen R.E. (2005) Increased genetic differentiation in a specialist versus a generalist bee: implications for conservation, Conserv. Genet. 6, 1017–1026 [CrossRef].
  • Zayed A., Constantin S.A., Packer L. (2007) Successful biological invasion despite a severe genetic load, PLoS ONE 2, e868.