Free access
Issue
Apidologie
Volume 40, Number 3, May-June 2009
Bee conservation
Page(s) 367 - 387
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009025
Published online 07 July 2009
References of  Apidologie 40 (2009) 367–387
  • Alford D.V. (1975) Bumblebees, Davis-Poynter, London.
  • Alford D.V. (1980) Atlas of the bumblebees of the British Isles, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge.
  • Anonymous (1994) Biodiversity: The UK Action Plan, HMSO, London.
  • Barnett E.A., Charlton A.J., Fletcher M.R. (2007) Incidents of bee poisoning with pesticides in the United Kingdom, 1994–2003, Pest Manage. Sci. 63, 1051–1057 [CrossRef].
  • Benton T. (2000) The bumblebees of Essex, Lopinga Books, Wimbish.
  • Benton T. (2006) Bumblebees, the natural history & identification of the species found in Britain, Collins, London.
  • Berenbaum M., Bernhardt P., Buchmann S., Calderone N., Goldstein P., Inouye D.W., Kevan P., Kremen C., Medellin R.A., Ricketts T., Robinson G.E., Snow A.A., Swinton S.M., Thein L.B., Thomspson F.C. (2007) Status of Pollinators in North America, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
  • Berezin M.V., Beiko V.B., Berezina N.V. (1996) Analysis of structural changes in the bumblebee (Bombus, Apidae) population of Moscow Oblast over the last forty years, Entomol. Rev. 76, 115–123.
  • Bowers M.A. (1985) Bumble bee colonization, extinction, and reproduction in subalpine meadows in northeastern Utah, Ecology 66, 914–927 [CrossRef].
  • Brasse D. (2003) Poisoning incidents involving honeybees in Germany (1999–2002) and new problems for beekeeping, Bull. Insectol. 56, 199.
  • Buchmann S., Kevan P.G., Adams L., Dalsimer A. (2008) Birds, bees, and bases: how military natural resource managers can help local pollinators and why they should care, Natural Selections 4, 5–6.
  • Carvell C. (2002) Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) under different grassland management regimes, Biol. Conserv. 103, 33–49 [CrossRef].
  • Carvell C., Meek W.R., Pywell R.F., Nowakowski M. (2004) The response of foraging bumblebees to successional change in newly created arable field margins, Biol. Conserv. 118, 327–339 [CrossRef].
  • Carvell C., Roy D.B., Smart S.M., Pywell R.F., Preston C.D., Goulson D. (2006a) Declines in forage availability for bumblebees at a national scale, Biol. Conserv. 132, 481–489 [CrossRef].
  • Carvell C., Meek W.R., Pywell R.F., Nowakowski M. (2006b) Assessing the value of annual and perennial forage mixtures for bumblebees by direct observation and pollen analysis, Apidologie 37, 326–340 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Carvell C., Meek W.R., Pywell R.F., Goulson D., Nowakowski M. (2007) Comparing the efficacy of agri-environment schemes to enhance bumble bee abundance and diversity on arable field margins, J. Appl. Ecol. 44, 29–40 [CrossRef].
  • Carvell C., Rothery P., Pywell R.F., Heard M.S. (2008) Effects of resource availability and social parasite invasion on field colonies of Bombus terrestris, Ecol. Entomol. 33, 321–327 [CrossRef].
  • Chapman R.E., Wang J., Bourke A.F.G. (2003) Genetic analysis of spatial foraging patterns and resource sharing in bumble bee pollinators, Mol. Ecol. 12, 2801–2808 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Colla S.R., Packer L. (2008) Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special focus on Bombus affinis Cresson, Biodiv. Conserv. 17, 1379–1391 [CrossRef].
  • Colla S.R., Otterstatter M.C., Gegear R.J., Thomson J.D. (2006) Plight of the bumble bee: pathogen spillover from commercial to wild populations, Biol. Conserv. 129, 461–467 [CrossRef].
  • Corbet S.A., Saville N.M., Osborne J.L. (1994) Farmland as a habitat for bumble bees, in: Matheson A. (Ed.), Forage for bees in an agricultural landscape, IBRA, Cardiff, pp. 35–46.
  • Cumber R.A. (1949) The biology of humble-bees, with special reference to the production of the worker caste, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 100, 1–45.
  • Darvill B., Ellis J.S., Lye G.C., Goulson D. (2006) Population structure and inbreeding in a rare and declining bumblebee, Bombus muscorum (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Mol. Ecol. 15, 601–611 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • De La Rúa P., Jaffé R., Dall'Olio R., Muñoz I., Serrano J. (2009) Biodiversity, conservation and current threats to European honeybees, Apidologie 40, 263–284 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Dias B.S.F., Raw A., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. (1999) International Pollinators Initiative: the São Paulo declaration on pollinators. Report on the recommendations of the workshop on the conservation and sustainable use of pollinators in agriculture with emphasis on bees, p. 79, Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, Brasília.
  • Dornhaus A., Chittka L. (2001) Food alert in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): possible mechanisms and evolutionary implications, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50, 570–576 [CrossRef].
  • Durrer S., Schmid-Hempel P. (1995) Parasites and the regional distribution of bumblebee species, Ecography 18, 114–122 [CrossRef].
  • Edwards M. (1999) U.K. B.A.P. Bumblebee Working Group report, 1999, p. 81, Privately published, Midhurst.
  • Edwards M. (2003) U.K. B.A.P. Bumblebee Working Group Report, 2002, p. 45, [online] http://hymettus.org.uk/reports.htm (accessed 30 January 2009).
  • Edwards M., Williams P.H. (2004) Where have all the bumblebees gone, and could they ever return? Brit. Wildl. June, 305–312.
  • Ellis J.S., Knight M.E., Darvill B., Goulson D. (2006) Extremely low effective population sizes, genetic structuring and reduced genetic diversity in a threatened bumblebee species, Bombus sylvarum (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Mol. Ecol. 15, 4375–4386 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Else G.R. (2000) Observations on Bombus soroeensis (F.) B. humilis Illiger and B. muscorum (L.) on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, in 1998–2000, BWARS Newsletter Autumn 2000, 5–6.
  • Fitzpatrick Ú., Murray T.E., Byrne A., Paxton R.J., Brown M.J.F. (2006) Regional Red Data list of Irish bees, [online] http://www.npws.ie/en/media/Media,4860,en.pdf (accessed 30 January 2009).
  • Fitzpatrick Ú., Murray T.E., Paxton R.J., Breen J., Cotton D., Santorum V., Brown M.J.F. (2007) Rarity and decline in bumblebees – a test of causes and correlates in the Irish fauna, Biol. Conserv. 136, 185–194 [CrossRef].
  • Free J.B., Butler C.G. (1959) Bumblebees, New Naturalist Series, Collins, London.
  • Fussell M., Corbet S.A. (1992) The nesting places of some British bumble bees, J. Apicult. Res. 31, 32–41.
  • Fye R.E., Medler J.T. (1954) Field domiciles for bumblebees, J. Econ. Entomol. 47, 672–676.
  • Gaston K.J., Warren P.H., Thompson K., Smith R.M. (2005) Urban domestic gardens (IV): The extent of the resource and its associated features, Biodiv. Conserv. 14, 3327–3349 [CrossRef].
  • Genersch E., Yue C., Fries I., de Miranda J.R. (2006) Detection of deformed wing virus, a honey bee viral pathogen, in bumble bees (Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum) with wing deformities, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 91, 61–63 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Génissel A., Aupinel P., Bressac C., Tasei J.-N., Chevrier C. (2002) Influence of pollen origin on performance of Bombus terrestris micro-colonies, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 104, 329–336 [CrossRef].
  • Goulson D. (2003) Bumblebees, their behaviour and ecology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Goulson D. (2007) Places to see bumblebees: Poland, Buzzword 2007, 5–7.
  • Goulson D., Osborne J.L. (in press) Foraging range and the spatial distribution of worker bumblebees, in: Jarau S., Hrncir M. (Eds.), Food exploitation by social insects: an ecological, behavioral and theoretical approach, CRC Press.
  • Goulson D., Darvill B. (2004) Niche overlap and diet breadth in bumblebees: are rare species more specialized in their choice of flowers? Apidologie 35, 55–63 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Goulson D., Hughes W.O.H., Derwent L.C., Stout J.C. (2002) Colony growth of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, in improved and conventional agricultural and suburban habitats, Oecologia 130, 267–273.
  • Goulson D., Hanley M.E., Darvill B., Ellis J.S., Knight M.E. (2005) Causes of rarity in bumblebees, Biol. Conserv. 122, 1–8 [CrossRef].
  • Goulson D., Hanley M.E., Darvill B., Ellis J.S. (2006) Biotope associations and the decline of bumblebees (Bombus spp.), J. Insect Conserv. 10, 95–103 [CrossRef].
  • Goulson D., Lye G.C., Darvill B. (2008) Decline and conservation of bumble bees, Annu. Rev. Ent. 53, 11.1–11.18.
  • Grixti J.C., Wong L.T., Cameron S.A., Favret C. (2009) Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest, Biol. Conserv. 142, 75–84 [CrossRef].
  • Hanley M.E., Franco M., Pichon S., Darvill B., Goulson D. (2008) Breeding system, pollinator choice and variation in pollen quality in British herbaceous plants, Funct. Ecol. 22, 592–598 [CrossRef].
  • Harder L.D. (1986) Influences on the density and dispersion of bumble bee nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Holarct. Ecol. 9, 99–103 [CrossRef].
  • Hatfield R.G., LeBuhn G. (2007) Patch and landscape factors shape community assemblage of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in montane meadows, Biol. Conserv. 139, 150–158 [CrossRef].
  • Haughton A.J., Champion G., Hawes C., Heard M., Brooks D.R., Bohan D.A., Clark S.A., Dewar A., Firbank L.G., Osborne J.L., Perry J.N., Rothery P., Roy D.B., Scott R., Woiwod I.P., Birchall C., Skellern M.P., Walker J., Baker P., Browne E., Dewar A.J.G., Garner B., Haylock L., Horne S., Mason N., Sands R., Walker M.J. (2003) Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B-Biol. 358, 1863–1877 [CrossRef].
  • Hawes C., Haughton A., Osborne J.L., Roy D., Clark S., Perry J., Rothery P., Bohan D., Brooks D., Champion G., Dewar A., Heard M., Woiwod I., Daniels R., Young M., Parish A., Scott R., Firbank L., Squire G. (2003) Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B-Biol. 358, 1899–1913 [CrossRef].
  • Heard M.S., Carvell C., Carreck N.L., Rothery P., Osborne J.L., Bourke A.F.G. (2007) Landscape context not patch size determines bumble-bee density on flower mixtures sown for agri-environment schemes, Biol. Lett. 3, 638–641 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Hines H.M., Hendrix S.D. (2005) Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) diversity and abundance in tallgrass prairie patches: effects of local and landscape floral resources, Environ. Entomol. 34, 1477–1484.
  • Inouye D.W. (1977) Species structure of bumblebee communities in North America and Europe, in: Mattson W.J. (Ed.), The role of arthropods in forest ecosystems, Springer Verlag, New York, pp. 35–40.
  • Inoue M.N., Yokoyama J., Washitani I. (2008) Displacement of Japanese native bumblebees by the recently introduced Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Insect Conserv. 12, 135–146 [CrossRef].
  • IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List categories and criteria: version 3.1, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland and Cambridge.
  • IUCN (2008) Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 7.0, Standards and Petitions Working Group of the IUCN SSC Biodiversity Assessments Sub-Committee.
  • IUCN (2008) IUCN red list of threatened species: Bombus franklini, IUCN [online] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/135295 (accessed 30 January 2009).
  • Kearns C.A., Thomson J.D. (2001) The natural history of bumblebees, a sourcebook for investigations, University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
  • Kells A.R., Goulson D. (2003) Preferred nesting sites of bumblebee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in agroecosystems in the UK, Biol. Conserv. 109, 165–174 [CrossRef].
  • Kevan P.G., Plowright R.C. (1989) Fenitrothion and insect pollinators, in: Ernst W.R., Pearce P.A., Pollock T.L. (Eds.), Environmental effects of fenitrothion use in forestry, Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Atlantic Region, p. 166.
  • Kevan P.G., Greco C.F., Belaoussoff S. (1997) Log-normality of biodiversity and abundance in diagnosis and measuring of ecosystemic health: pesticide stress on pollinators on blueberry heaths, J. Appl. Ecol. 34, 1122–1136 [CrossRef].
  • Kleijn D., Raemakers I. (2008) A retrospective analysis of pollen host plant use by stable and declining bumble bee species, Ecology 89, 1811–1823 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Kleijn D., Sutherland W.J. (2003) How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? J. Appl. Ecol. 40, 947–969 [CrossRef].
  • Kosior A., Celary W., Olejniczak P., Fijal J., Król W., Solarz W., Plonka P. (2007) The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) of western and central Europe, Oryx 41, 79–88 [CrossRef].
  • Kwak M.M. (1996) Bumble bees at home and at school, in: Matheson, A. (Ed.), Bumble bees for pleasure and profit, International Bee Research Association, Cardiff, UK, pp. 12–23.
  • Lewis G., Thompson H., Smagghe G. (2007) In focus: Pesticides and honeybees – the work of the ICP-BR bee protection group editorial, Pest Manage. Sci. 63, 1047–1050 [CrossRef].
  • Løken A. (1961) Bombus consobrinus Dahlb., an oligolectic bumble bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Trans. XI Int. Congr. Ent. Vienna 1, 598–603.
  • Løken A. (1973) Studies on Scandinavian bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Norsk Entomol. Tiddskr. 20, 1–218.
  • Macdonald M. (2001) The colonisation of northern Scotland by Bombus terrestris (L.) and B. lapidarius (L.) (Hym., Apidae), with comments on the possible role of climate change, Entomol. Mon. Mag, 137, 1–13.
  • Marshall E.J.P., West T.M., Kleijn D. (2006) Impacts of an agri-environment field margin prescription on the flora and fauna of arable farmland in different landscapes, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 113, 36–44 [CrossRef].
  • Matheson A., Ed. (1994) Forage for bees in an agricultural landscape, IBRA, Cardiff.
  • Matsumura C., Yokoyama J., Washitani I. (2004) Invasion status and potential impacts of an invasive alien bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) naturalized in southern Hokkaido, Japan, Global Environ. Res. 8, 51–66.
  • McFrederick Q.S., LeBuhn G. (2006) Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? Biol. Conserv. 129, 372–382 [CrossRef].
  • McKinney M.L. (1997) Extinction vulnerability and selectivity: combining ecological and paleontological views, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28, 495–516 [CrossRef].
  • Milne A.A. (1926) Winnie-the-Pooh, Methuen, London.
  • Murray T.E., Fitzpatrick U., Brown M.J.F., Paxton R.J. (2008) Cryptic species diversity in a widespread bumble bee complex revealed using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs, Conserv. Genet. 9, 653–666 [CrossRef].
  • Nagamitsu T., Kenta T., Inari N., Kato E., Hiura T. (2006) Abundance, body size, and morphology of bumblebees in an area where an exotic species, Bombus terrestris, has colonized in Japan, Ecol. Res. 22, 331–341 [CrossRef].
  • Osborne J.L., Williams I.H. (2001) Site constancy of bumble bees in an experimentally patchy habitat, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 83, 129–141 [CrossRef].
  • Osborne J.L., Clark S.J., Morris R.J., Williams I.H., Riley J.R., Smith A.D., Reynolds D.R., Edwards A.S. (1999) A landscape-scale study of bumble bee foraging range and constancy, using harmonic radar, J. Appl. Ecol. 36, 519–533 [CrossRef].
  • Osborne J.L., Martin A.P., Shortall C.R., Todd A.D., Goulson D., Knight M.E., Hale R.J., Sanderson R.A. (2008a) Quantifying and comparing bumblebee nest densities in gardens and countryside habitats, J. Appl. Ecol. 45, 784–792 [CrossRef].
  • Osborne J.L., Martin A.P., Carreck N.L., Swain A.L., Knight M.E., Goulson D., Hale R.J., Sanderson R.A. (2008b) Bumblebee flight distances in relation to the forage landscape, J. Anim. Ecol. 77, 406–415 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Otterstatter M.C., Thomson J.D. (2008) Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators? PLoS ONE 3, e2771.
  • Plowright R.C. (1977) Nest architecture and the biosystematics of bumble bees, Proc. 8th Int. Congr. IUSSI, 183–185.
  • Pywell R.F., Warman E.A., Hulmes L., Hulmes S., Nuttall P., Sparks T.H., Critchley C.N.R., Sherwood A. (2006) Effectiveness of new agri-environment schemes in providing foraging resources for bumblebees in intensively farmed landscapes, Biol. Conserv. 129, 192–206 [CrossRef].
  • Ranta E. (1982) Species structure of North European bumblebee communities, Oikos 38, 202–209 [CrossRef].
  • Rasmont P. (1988) Monographie écologique et zoogéographique des bourdons de France et de Belgique (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombinae), pages 309+lxi, Faculté des Sciences agronomiques de l'État, Gembloux.
  • Rasmont P., Mersch P. (1988) Première estimation de la dérive faunique chez les bourdons de la Belgique (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 118, 141–147.
  • Rasmont P., Pauly A., Terzo M., Patiny S., Michez D., Iserbyt S., Barbier Y., Haubruge, E. (2005) The survey of wild bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in Belgium and France, p. 18, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
  • Richards K.W. (1978) Nest site selection by bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in southern Alberta, Can. Entomol. 110, 301–318.
  • Rodrigues A.S.L., Pilgrim J.D., Lamoreux J.F., Hoffman M., Brooks T.M. (2006) The value of the IUCN Red List for conservation, Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 71–76 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Rosenkranz P., Wallner K. (2008) The chronology of honey bee losses in the Rhine Valley during spring 2008: an example of a worst case scenario, pages 94–95 in Teal J., Osborne J.L., Paxton R.J. (Eds.), Eurbee3; 3rd European Conference of Apidology, Queen's University, Belfast.
  • Rundlof M., Nilsson H., Smith H.G. (2008) Interacting effects of farming practice and landscape context on bumblebees, Biol. Conserv. 141, 417–426.
  • Rural Development Service (2005) Environmental Stewardship: Look after your land and be rewarded, p. 12, Defra, UK.
  • Sárospataki M., Novák J., Molnár V. (2005) Assessing the threatened status of bumble bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Hungary, Central Europe, Biodiv. Conserv. 14, 2437–2446 [CrossRef].
  • Schmid-Hempel P., Loosli R. (1998) A contribution to the knowledge of Nosema infections in bumble bees, Bombus spp., Apidologie 29, 525–535 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Simberloff D., Boecklen W. (1981) Santa Rosalia reconsidered: size ratios and competition, Evolution 35, 1206–1228 [CrossRef].
  • Skovgaard O.S. (1936) Rødkløverens bestøvning, humlebier og humleboer. [Pollination of red clover, bumblebees and bumblebee nests], Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab Nat.- og Mat., Afd. 9. 6, 1–140.
  • Sladen F.W.L. (1912) The humble-bee, its life history and how to domesticate it, with descriptions of all the British species of Bombus and Psithyrus, MacMillan, London.
  • Spiewok S., Neumann P. (2006) Infestation of commercial bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) field colonies by small hive beetles (Aethina tumida), Ecol. Entomol. 31, 623–628 [CrossRef].
  • Stephen W.P. (1955) Alfalfa pollination in Manitoba, J. Econ. Entomol. 48, 543–549.
  • Stout J.C., Morales C.L. (2009) Ecological impacts of invasive alien species on bees, Apidologie 40, 388–409 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Svensson B.G. (1979) Patrolling behaviour of bumble bee males (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a subalpine/alpine area, Swedish Lapland, Zoon 7, 67–94.
  • Svensson B., Lagerlof J., Svensson B.G. (2000) Habitat preferences of nest-seeking bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in an agricultural landscape, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 77, 247–255 [CrossRef].
  • Thomas C.D., Franco A.M.A., Hill J.K. (2006) Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming, Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 415–416 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Thompson H.M. (2001) Assessing the exposure and toxicity of pesticides to bumblebees (Bombus sp.), Apidologie 32, 305–321 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Thompson H.M., Hunt L.V. (1999) Extrapolating from honeybees to bumblebees in pesticide risk assessment, Ecotoxicology 8, 147–166 [CrossRef].
  • Thompson H.M., Maus C. (2007) The relevance of sublethal effects in honey bee testing for pesticide risk assessment, Pest Manage. Sci. 63, 1058–1061 [CrossRef].
  • Thorp R.W. (2003) Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): commercial use and environmental concerns, in: Strickler K., Cane J.H. (Eds.), For nonnative crops, whence pollinators of the future? Entomological Society of America, Lanham MD, pp. 21–40.
  • Thorp R.W. (2005) Profile: Bombus franklini Frison, 1921, Franklin's bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae: Bombini). in: Shepherd M.D., Vaughan D.M., Black S.H. (Eds.), Red list of pollinator insects of North America, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland (Oregon), p. 8.
  • Thorp R.W., Shepherd M.D. (2005) Profile: Subgenus Bombus Latreille, 1802 (Apidae: Apinae: Bombini), in: Shepherd M.D., Vaughan D.M., Black S.H. (Eds.), Red list of pollinator insects of North America, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland (Oregon), p. 5.
  • Thorp R.W., Horning D.S., Dunning L.L. (1983) Bumble bees and cuckoo bumble bees of California (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Bull. Calif. Insect Surv. 23, viii+79.
  • Tommasi D., Miro A., Higo H.A., Winston M.L. (2004) Bee diversity and abundance in an urban setting, Can. Entomol. 136, 851–869 [CrossRef].
  • Vaughan M., Shepard M., Kremen C., Black S. (2004) Farming for bees: Guidelines for providing native bee habitat on farms, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland, USA.
  • Westphal C., Steffan-Dewenter I., Tscharntke T. (2003) Mass flowering crops enhance pollinator densities at a landscape scale, Ecol. Lett. 6, 961–965 [CrossRef].
  • Westphal C., Steffan-Dewenter I., Tscharntke T. (2006) Bumblebees experience landscapes at different spatial scales: possible implications for coexistence, Oecologia 149, 289–300 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Westrich P. (1989) Die Wildbienen Baden-Wuerttembergs, Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • Williams I.H., Carreck N.L. (1994) Land use changes and honey bee forage plants, in: Matheson A. (Ed.), Forage for bees in an agricultural landscape, IBRA, Cardiff, pp. 7–20.
  • Williams P.H. (1982) The distribution and decline of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.), J. Apic. Res. 21, 236–245.
  • Williams P.H. (1985) On the distribution of bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae) with particular regard to patterns within the British Isles, pages 180, Department of Applied Biology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
  • Williams P.H. (1986) Environmental change and the distributions of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.), Bee World 67, 50–61.
  • Williams P.H. (1988) Habitat use by bumble bees (Bombus spp.), Ecol. Entomol. 13, 223–237 [CrossRef].
  • Williams P.H. (1989a) Bumble bees – and their decline in Britain, Central Association of Bee-Keepers, Ilford.
  • Williams P.H. (1989b) Why are there so many species of bumble bees at Dungeness? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 101, 31–44 [CrossRef].
  • Williams P.H. (1991) The bumble bees of the Kashmir Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini), Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) 60, 1–204.
  • Williams P.H. (1998) An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini), Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (Entomol.) 67, 79–152 [ updated at <http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/projects/bombus/>] (accessed 30 January 2009).
  • Williams P.H. (2000) Some properties of rarity scores used in site quality assessment, Brit. J. Entomol. Nat. Hist. 13, 73–86.
  • Williams P.H. (2005) Does specialization explain rarity and decline among British bumblebees? A response to Goulson et al., Biol. Conserv. 122, 33–43 [CrossRef].
  • Williams P.H., Araújo M.B., Rasmont P. (2007) Can vulnerability among British bumblebee (Bombus) species be explained by niche position and breadth? Biol. Conserv. 138, 493–505 [CrossRef].
  • Williams P.H., Colla S.R., Xie Z. (2009a) Bumblebee vulnerability: common correlates of winners and losers across three continents, Conserv. Biol. 23, in press.
  • Williams P.H., Tang Y., Yao J., Cameron S. (2009b) The bumblebees of Sichuan (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini), Syst. Biodiv. 7, 101–190 [CrossRef].
  • Winter K., Adams L., Thorp R.W., Inouye D.W., Day L., Ascher J., Buchmann S. (2006) Importation of non-native bumble bees into North America: potential consequences of using Bombus terrestris and other non-native bumble bees for greenhouse crop pollination in Canada, Mexico, and the United States, p. 33, A White Paper of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPCC), San Francisco.
  • Xie Z., Williams P.H., Tang Y. (2008) The effect of grazing on bumblebees in the high rangelands of the eastern Tibetan Plateau of Sichuan, J. Insect Conserv. 12, 695–703 [CrossRef].
  • Yang D.-R. (1999) The status of species diversity and conservation strategy of bumble bees, a pollination insect in Lancang River Basin of Yunnan, China, Chinese Biodiv. 7, 170–174.
  • Zayed A. (2009) Bee genetics and conservation, Apidologie 40, 237–262 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].