Free access
Publication ahead of print
Journal
Apidologie
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/2010048
Published online 29 July 2010
  • Adams D.C., Rohlf F.J., Slice D.E. (2004) Geometric morphometrics: ten years of progress following the revolution, Ital. J. Zool. 71, 5–16. [CrossRef]
  • Arias M.C., Sheppard W.S. (1996) Molecular phylogenetics of honey bee subespecies (Apis mellifera), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 5, 557–566. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Arias M.C., Rinderer T.E., Sheppard W.S. (2006) Further characterization of honey bees from the Iberian Peninsula by allozyme, morphometric and mtDNA haplotype analyses, J. Apic. Res. 45, 188–196. [CrossRef]
  • Baylac M., Daufresne T. (1996) Wing venation variability in Monarthropalpus buxi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) and the quaternary coevolution of box (Buxus sempervirens L.) and its midge: A Geometrical Morphometric Analysis, in: Advances in Morphometrics, NATO-ASI Series A, Plenum Press, pp. 285–301.
  • Baylac M., Friess M. (2005) Fourier descriptors, Procrustes superimposition, and data dimensionality: an example of cranial shape analysis in modern human populations, in: Slice D.E. (Ed.), Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology, Kluwer, pp. 145–165.
  • Baylac M., Penin X. (1998) Wing static allometry in Drosophila simulans males (Diptera, Drosophilidae) and its relationships with developmental compartments, Acta Zool. 44, 97–112.
  • Baylac M., Garnery L., Tharavy D., Pedraza-Acosta J., Rortais A., Arnold G. (2008) ApiClass, an automatic wing morphometric expert system for honeybee identification, [online] http://apiclass.mnhn.fr.
  • Baylac M., Villemant C., Simbolotti G. (2003) Combining Geometric Morphometrics with Pattern Recognition for the investigation of Species Complexes, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 80, 89–98. [CrossRef]
  • Bonnet E., Van de Peer Y. (2002) ZT: a software tool for simple and partial Mantel tests, J. S. S. 7, 1–12.
  • Bookstein F. (1991) Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Bookstein F.L., Chernoff B., Elder R.L., Humphries J.M., Smith G.R., Strauss R.E. (1985) Morphometrics in evolutionary biology: the geometry of size and shape change, with examples from fishes, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, No. 15.
  • Canovas F., De la Rua P., Serrano J., Galian J. (2007) Geographical patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation in Apis mellifera iberiensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 46, 24–30.
  • Cornuet J.M., Fresnaye J. (1989) Etude biométrique de colonies d’abeilles d’Espagne et du Portugal, Apidologie 20, 93–101. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Darroch J.N., Mosimann J.E. (1985) Canonical and principal components of shape, Biometrika 72, 241–252. [CrossRef] [MathSciNet]
  • Diniz-Filho J.A., Fuchs S., Arias M.C. (1999) Phylogeographical autocorrelation of phenotypic evolution in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), Heredity 83, 671–680. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Dryden I.L., Mardia K.V. (1998) Statistical shape analysis, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Estoup A., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (1995) Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations:hierarchical genetic structure and test of infinite models, Genetics 140, 679–695. [PubMed]
  • Evin A., Baylac M., Ruedi M., Mucceda M., Pons J.P. (2008) Taxonomy, skull diversity and evolution in a species complex of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): a geometric morphometric appraisal, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 95, 529–538. [CrossRef]
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (1998) The origin of west European subspecies of honeybees (Apis mellifera): new insights from microsatellite and mitochondrial data, Evolution 52, 1119–1134. [CrossRef]
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (2000) Molecular confirmation of a fourth lineage in honeybees from Near East, Apidologie 31, 167–180. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Loiseau A., Oldfroyd B.P., Hepburn H.R., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (2001) Genetic diversity of the honeybee in Africa: microsatellite and mitochondrial data, Heredity 86, 420–430. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Francoy T.M., Prado P.R.R., Gonçalves L.S., da Fontoura Costa L., De Jong D. (2006) Morphometric differences in a single wing cell can discriminate Apis mellifera racial types, Apidologie 37, 91–97. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Francoy T.M., Wittmann D., Drauschke M., Müller S., Steinhage V., Bezerra-Laure M.A.F., De Jong D., Concalves, L.S. (2008) Identification of Africanized honey bees through wing morphometrics: two fast and efficient procedures, Apidologie 39, 488–494. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Francoy T.M., Wittmann D., Steinhage V., Drauschke M., Müller M., Cunha D.R., Nascimento A.M., Figueiredo V.L.C., Simoes Z.L.P., De Jong D., Arias M.C., Gonçalves L.S. (2009) Morphometric and genetic changes in a population of Apis mellifera after 34 years of Africanization, Genet. Mol. Res. 8, 709–717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Garnery L., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M. (1992) Evolutionary history of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis, Mol. Ecol. 1, 145–154. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Garnery L., Franck P., Baudry E., Vautrin D., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M. (1998) Genetic diversity of the west European honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera and A. m. iberica). I. Mitochondrial DNA, Genet. Sel. Evol. 30, S31–S47. [CrossRef]
  • Garnery L., Franck P., Baudry E., Vautrin D., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M. (1998) Genetic diversity of the west European honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera and A. m. iberica). II. Microsatellite loci, Genet. Sel. Evol. 30, S49–S74. [CrossRef]
  • Garnery L., Mosshine E.H., Oldroyd B.P., Cornuet J.M. (1995) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Moroccan and Spanish honey bee populations, Mol. Ecol. 4, 465–471. [CrossRef]
  • Gould S.J. (1966) Allometry and size in ontogeny and phylogeny, Biol. Rev. 41, 587–640. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hamon L.J., Gibson, R. (2006) Multivariate phenotypic evolution among island and mainland populations of the ornate day gecko, Phelsuma ornata, Evolution 60, 2622–2632. [PubMed]
  • Hepburn H.R., Radlof S.E. (1996) Morphometric and pheromonal analysis of Apis mellifera L. along a transect from the Sahara to the Pyrenees, Apidologie 27, 35–45. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E. (1998) Honeybee of Africa, Springer, Berlin.
  • Klingenberg C.P., Badyaev A.V., Sowry S.M., Beckwith N.J. (2001) Inferring developmental modularity from morphological integration: Analysis of individual variation and asymmetry in bumblebee wings, Am. Nat. 157, 11–23. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Langella O. (2002) Populations, 1.2.28, Copyright (C) 1999, CNRS UPR9034.
  • Lobo J.A., Krieger H. (1992) Maximum likelihood estimates of gene frequencies and racial admixture in Apis mellifera L. (Africanized honeybees), Heredity 68, 441–448.
  • Mahalanobis P.C. (1936) On the generalized distance in statistics, Proc. Acad. Natl. Sci. 12, 49–55.
  • Marroig G., Cheverud J. (2004) Cranial evolution in sakis (Pithecia, Platyrrhini) I: Interspecific differentiation and allometric patterns, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 125, 266–278. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Mattu V.K., Verma L.R. (1983) Comparative morphometric studies on the Indian honeybee of the North-west Himalaya 1. Tongue and Antenna, J. Apic. Res. 22, 79–85.
  • Meixner M., Ruttner F., Koeniger N., Koeniger G. (1989) The mountain bees of the Kilimanjaro region and their relation to neighboring bee populations, Apidologie 20, 165–174. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Meixner M., Sheppard W.S., Dietz A., Krell R. (1994) Morphological and allozyme variability in honey bees from Kenya, Apidologie 25, 188–202. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Miguel I., Iriondo M., Garnery L., Sheppard W.S., Estonba A. (2007) Gene flow within the M evolutionary lineage of Apis mellifera: role of the Pyrenees, isolation by distance and post glacial re-colonization routes in the western Europe, Apidologie 38, 141–155. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Monteiro L.R. (1999) Multivariate regression models and geometric morphometrics: the search for causal factors in the analysis of shape, Syst. Biol. 48, 192–199. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Monteiro, L.R., Bordin B., DosReis S.F. (2000) Shape distances, shape spaces and the comparison of morphometric methods, TREE 15, 217–220.
  • Monteiro L.R., Diniz-Filho J.A.F. dos Reis S.F., Araújo E. (2002) Geometric Estimates of Heritability in Biological Shape, Evolution 56, 563–572. [PubMed]
  • Mosimann J.E., James F.C. (1979) New statistical methods for allometry with application to Florida red-winged blackbirds, Evolution 33, 444–459. [CrossRef]
  • Neff N.A., Smith G.R. (1979) Multivariate Analysis of Hybrid Fishes, Syst. Zool. 28, 176–196. [CrossRef]
  • Nei M., Tajima F., Tateno Y. (1983) Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data, J. Mol. Evol. 19, 153–170. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Piry S., Alapetite A., Cornuet, J.M., Paetkau D., Baudouin L., Estoup A. (2004) GeneClass2: A Software for Genetic Assignment and First-Generation Migrant Detection, J. Hered. 95, 536–539. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Pretorius E. (2005) Using geometric morphometrics to investigate wing dimorphism in males and females of Hymenoptera – a case study based on the genus Tachyphex Kohl (Hymenoptra: Sphecidae: Larrinae), Aust. J. Entomol. 44, 113–121. [CrossRef]
  • Rannala B., Mountain J.L. (1997) Detecting immigration by using multilocus genotypes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 9197–9221. [CrossRef]
  • Ripley B.D. (1996) Pattern recognition and neural networks, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, G.B.
  • Roberts W.C. (1961) Heterosis in the Honey bee as shown by morphological characters in inbred and hybrid bees, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 54, 878–882.
  • Rohlf F.J. (1999) Shape Statistics: Procrustes superimposition and tangent spaces, J. Classif. 16, 197-223. [CrossRef]
  • Rohlf F.J., Slice D. (1990) Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks, Syst. Zool. 39, 40–59. [CrossRef]
  • Ruttner F. (1988) Biogeography and taxonomy of honeybees, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
  • Ruttner F., Tassencourt L., Louveaux J. (1978) Biometrical-statistical analysis of the geographic variability of Apis mellifera L., Apidologie 9, 363–381. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Ruttner F., Pour-Elmi M., Fuchs S. (2000) Ecoclines in the Near East along 36°N latitude in Apis mellifera L., Apidologie 31, 157–166. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Sheppard W.S., Arias M.C., Grech A., Meixner M.D. (1997) Apis mellifera ruttneri, a new honey bee subspecies from Malta, Apidologie 28, 287–293. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Smith D.R., Crespi B.J., Bookstein F.L. (1997) Fluctuating asymmetry in the honey bee, Apis mellifera: effect of ploidy and hybridization, J. Evol. Biol. 10, 551–574. [CrossRef]
  • Smith D.R, Glenn T.C. (1995) Allozyme polymorphisms in Spanish honeybees (Apis mellifera iberica), J. Hered. 86, 12–16. [PubMed]
  • Smith D.R., Palopoli M.F., Taylor B.R., Garnery L., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M., Brown W.M. (1991) Geographical overlap of two mitochondrial genomes in Spanish honeybees (Apis mellifera iberica), J. Hered. 82, 96–100. [PubMed]
  • Sprent P. (1972) The mathematics of size and shape, Biometrics 28, 23–27. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Tofilski A. (2008) Using geometric morphometrics and standard morphometrics to discriminate three honeybee subspecies, Apidologie 39, 558–563. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Updegraff G. (1990) MeasurementTV, version 1.3. Data Crunch 304 avenue Adobe, Dan Clemente, CA 92672, USA.
  • Whitfield C.W., Behura S.K., Berlocher S.H., Clark A.G., Johnston J.S., Sheppard W.S., Smith D.R., Suarez A.V., Weaver D., Tsutsui N.D. (2006) Thrice out of Africa: Ancient and recent expansions of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, Science 27, 642–645. [CrossRef] [PubMed]