Free Access
Publication ahead of print
Published online 29 July 2010
  • Adamo S.A. (2004) How should behavioural ecologists interpret measurements of immunity? Anim. Behav. 68, 1443–1449. [CrossRef]
  • Allen M., Ball B. (1996) The incidence and world distribution of honey bee viruses, Bee World 77, 141–162.
  • Armitage S.A.O., Siva-Jothy M.T. (2005) Immune function responds to selection for cuticular colour in Tenebrio molitor, Heredity 94, 650–656. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bailey L., Ball B.V. (1991) Honey Bee Pathology, Academic Press Ltd., London.
  • Barnes A.I., Siva-Jothy M.T. (2000) Density-dependent prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): cuticular melanization is an indicator of investment in immunity, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267, 177–182. [CrossRef]
  • Bidla G., Hauling T., Dushay M.S., Theopold U. (2009) Activation of insect phenoloxidase after inury: endogenous versus foreign elicitors, J. Innate Imm. 1, 301–308. [CrossRef]
  • Boman H.G., Hultmark D. (1987) Cell-free immunity in insects, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41, 103–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Braun A., Hoffmann J.A., Meister M. (1998) Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14337–14342. [CrossRef]
  • Brookman J.L., Ratcliffe N.A., Rowley A.F. (1989) Studies on the activation of the phenoloxidase system of insects by bacterial cell wall components, Insect Biochem. 19, 47–57. [CrossRef]
  • Brown M.J.F., Moret Y., Schmid-Hempel P. (2003) Activation of host constitutive immune defence by an intestinal trypanosome parasite of bumble bees, Parasitology 126, 253–260. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Carreck N.L., Williams I.H. (1998) The economic value of bees in the UK, Bee World 79, 115–123.
  • Cerenius L., Lee B.L., Söderhäll K. (2008) The proPO-system: pros and cons for its role in invertebrate immunity, Trends Immunol. 29, 263-271. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Cornet S., Franceschi N., Bollache L., Rigaud T., Sorci G. (2009) Variation and covariation in infectivity, virulence and immunodepression in the host-parasite association Gammarus pulex-Pomphorhynchus laevis, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 276, 4229–4236. [CrossRef]
  • Cornet S., Biard C., Moret Y. (2009) Variation in immune defence among populations of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda), Oecologia 159, 257–269. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Cox-Foster D.L., Conlan S., Holmes E.C., Palacios G., Evans J.D., Moran N.A., Quan P., Briese T., Hornig M., Geiser D.M., Martinson V., vanEngelsdorp D., Kalkstein A.L., Drysdale A., Hui J., Zhai J., Cui L., Hutchison S.K., Simons J.F., Egholm M., Pettis J.S., Lipkin W.I. (2007) A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder, Science 318, 283–287. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Eleftherianos I., Millichap P.J., ffrench-Constant R.H., Reynolds S.E. (2006) RNAi suppression of recognition protein mediated immune responses in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta causes increased susceptibility to the insect pathogen Photorhabdus, Dev. Comp. Immunol. 30, 1099–1107. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Evans J.D. (2006) Beepath: an ordered quantitative-PCR array for exploring honey bee immunity and disease, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 93, 135–139. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Evans J.D., Pettis J.S. (2005) Colony-level impacts of immune responsiveness in honey bees, Apis mellifera, Evolution 59, 2270–2274. [PubMed]
  • Frassens V., Simonet G., Breugelmans B., Van Soest S., Van Hoef V., Vanden Broeck J. (2008) The role of hemocytes, serine protease inhibitors and pathogen-associated patterns in prophenoloxidase activation in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, Peptides 29, 235–241. [PubMed]
  • Gillespie J.P., Kanost M.R., Trenczek T. (1997) Biological mediators of insect immunity, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42, 611–643. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gunnarsson S.G.S., Lackie A.M.(1985) Hemocytic aggregation in Schistocerca gregaria and Periplaneta americana as a response to injected substances of microbial origin, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 46, 312–319. [CrossRef]
  • Haine E.R., Moret Y., Siva-Jothy M.T., Rolff J. (2008) Antimicrobial defense and persistent infection in insects, Science 322, 1257–1259. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Henderson P.J.F. (1992) Statistical analysis of enzyme kinetic data, in: Eisenthal R., Danson M.J. (Eds.), Enzyme assays: a practical approach, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 277–316.
  • Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium (HGSC) (2006) Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Nature 443, 931–949. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Horowitz N.H., Shen S. (1952) Neurospora tyrosinase, J. Biol. Chem. 197, 513–520. [PubMed]
  • Johnson R.M., Evans J.D., Robinson G.E., Berenbaum M.R. (2009) Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera), PNAS 106, 14790–14795. [CrossRef]
  • Kopacek P., Weise C., Gotz P. (1995) The prophenoloxidase from the wax moth Galleria mellonella: purification and characterization of the proenzyme, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 25, 1081–1091. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Korner P., Schmid-Hempel P. (2004) In vivo dynamics of an immune response in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 87, 59–66. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Laughton, A.M. (2008) The ontogeny of immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK.
  • Leclerc V., Pelte N., El Chamy L., Martinelli C., Ligoxygakis P., Hoffman J. A., Reichhart J. (2006) Prophenoloxidase activation is not required for survival to microbial infections in Drosophila, EMBO Reports 7, 231–235. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lourenço A.P., Zufelato M.S., Bitondi M.M.G., Simöes Z.L.P. (2005) Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase and its expression in Apis mellifera, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 35, 541–552. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Mason H.S. (1955) Comparative biochemistry of the phenolase complex, Adv. Enzymol. 16, 105–184.
  • Moret Y., Siva-Jothy M.T. (2003) Adaptive innate immunity? Responsive-mode prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, 2475–2480. [CrossRef]
  • Mucklow P.T., Vizoso D.B., Jensen K.H., Refardt D., Ebert D. (2004) Variation in phenoloxidase activity and its relation to parasite resistance within and between populations of Daphnia magna, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 1175–1183. [CrossRef]
  • Muhlia-Almazán A., Sánchez-Paz A., García-Carreño F.L. (2008) Invertebrate trypsins: a review, J. Comp. Physiol. B 178, 655–672. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Mullen L.M., Goldsworthy G.J. (2006) Immune responses of locusts to challenge with the pathogenic fungus Metarhizium or high doses of laminarin, J. Insect Physiol. 52, 389–398. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Nappi A.J., Vass E., Frey F., Carton Y. (1995) Superoxide anion generation in Drosophila during melanic encapsulation of parasites, Eur. J. Cell Biol. 68, 450–456. [PubMed]
  • Nappi A.J., Vass E., Malagoli D., Carton Y. (2004) The effects of parasite-derived immune-suppressive factors on the cellular innate immune and autoimmune responses of Drosophila melanogaster, J. Parasitol. 90, 1139–1149. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Nigam Y., Maudlin I., Welburn S., Ratcliffe N.A. (1997) Detection of phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of tsetse flies, refractory and susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 69, 279–281. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Oldroyd B.P. (2007) What’s killing American honey bees? PloS Biol. 5, e168. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ratcliffe N.A., Leonard C., Rowley A.F. (1984) Prophenoloxidase activation: nonself recognition and cell cooperation in insect immunity, Science 226, 557–559. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Riley P.A. (1988) Radicals in melanin biochemistry, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 551, 111–120. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Saul S.J., Sugumaran M. (1988) Prophenoloxidase activation in the hemolymph of Sarcophaga bullata larvae, Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 7, 91–103. [CrossRef]
  • Schmid M.R., Brockmann A., Pirk C.W.W., Stanley D.W., Tautz J. (2008) Adult honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) abandon hemocytic, but not phenoloxidase-based immunity, J. Insect Physiol. 54, 439–444. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Schmid-Hempel P. (2005) Evolutionary ecology of insect immune defenses, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50, 529–551. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Schwarzenbach G.A., Ward P.I. (2007) Phenoloxidase activity and pathogen resistance in yellow dung flies Scathophaga stercoraria, J. Evol. Biol. 20, 2192–2199. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Sinsabaugh R.L., Repert D., Weiland T., Golladay S. W., Linkins A.E. (1991) Exoenzyme accumulation in epilithic biofilms, Hydrobiologia 222, 29–37. [CrossRef]
  • Siva-Jothy M.T., Moret Y., Rolff J. (2005) Insect immunity: an evolutionary ecology perspective, Adv. Insect Physiol. 32, 1–48. [CrossRef]
  • Söderhäll K., Cerenius L. (1998) Role of the prophenoloxidase-activating system in invertebrate immunity, Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10, 23–28. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Sugumaran M. (2002) Comparative biochemistry of eumelanogenesis and the protective roles of phenoloxidase and melanin in insects, Pigm. Cell Res. 15, 2–9. [CrossRef]
  • The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals (2006) in: O’Neil M.J. (Ed.), Merck, Whitehouse Station, N.J.
  • Thompson J.J.W. (2002) Aspects of melanin production and immunity in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, MPhil thesis, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK.
  • Wilson K., Cotter S.C., Reeson A.F., Pell J.K. (2001) Melanism and disease resistance in insects, Ecol. Lett. 4, 637–649. [CrossRef]
  • Wilson-Rich N., Dres S.T., Starks P.T. (2008) The ontogeny of immunity: development of innate immune strength in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), J. Insect Physiol. 54, 1392–1399. [CrossRef] [PubMed]