Free access
Volume 29, Number 1-2, 1998
Colony integration
Page(s) 171 - 190
Apidologie 29 (1998) 171-190
DOI: 10.1051/apido:19980110

Self-organization and the evolution of division of labor

Robert E. Page Jra and Sandra D. Mitchellb

a  Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
b  Department of Philosophy, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA

Abstract - Division of labor is one of the most fascinating phenomena found in social insects and is probably responsible for their tremendous ecological success. We show how major features of this division of labor may represent self-organized properties of a complex system where individuals share an information data base (a stimulus environment), make independent decisions about how to respond to the current condition of that data base (stimulus environment), and alter the data base by their actions. We argue that division of labor can emerge from such systems even without a history of natural selection, that in fact such ordered behavior is an inescapable property of group living. We then show how natural selection can operate on self-organized complex systems (social organization) and result in adaptation of division of labor. © Inra/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris

Key words: self organization / division of labor / evolution / insect societies / Apis mellifera

What is OpenURL?

The OpenURL standard is a protocol for transmission of metadata describing the resource that you wish to access.

An OpenURL link contains article metadata and directs it to the OpenURL server of your choice. The OpenURL server can provide access to the resource and also offer complementary services (specific search engine, export of references...). The OpenURL link can be generated by different means.

  • If your librarian has set up your subscription with an OpenURL resolver, OpenURL links appear automatically on the abstract pages.
  • You can define your own OpenURL resolver with your EDPS Account.
    In this case your choice will be given priority over that of your library.
  • You can use an add-on for your browser (Firefox or I.E.) to display OpenURL links on a page (see You should disable this module if you wish to use the OpenURL server that you or your library have defined.