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Volume 30, Number 2-3, 1999
Dynamics and control of Varroa parasitism on Apis
Page(s) 235 - 248
Apidologie 30 (1999) 235-248
DOI: 10.1051/apido:19990212

Varroacides and their residues in bee products

Klaus Wallner

Universität Hohenheim, Landesanstalt für Bienenkunde, August-von-Hartmann-Str. 13, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany

Abstract - In general, the use of varroacides in bee colonies leaves residues in various bee products. Among the variety of available varroacides, three ingredients are commonly detectable in honey and beeswax: bromopropylate (Folbex VA Neu), coumaphos (Perizin, Asuntol) and fluvalinate (Apistan, Klartan, Mavrik). These chemicals are fat-soluble and non-volatile, and thus they accumulate in ppm levels as residues in beeswax with years of treatment. Through the process of diffusion, these ingredients migrate from the wax comb into the stored honey. In German honey, the most frequently found varroacide is coumaphos (28 %). Bromopropylate is detectable but with decreasing frequency (11 %). Because of its high binding strength in beeswax, fluvalinate detection is relatively rare in honey (1 %). All residues were found with low ppb levels. Other ingredients with similar chemical behaviour presently play an unimportant role as residues in honey, beeswax and propolis owing to the very low amount of ingredients used (acrinathrine, flumethrine) or instability (amitraz). © Inra/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris

Key words: Apis mellifera / varroacides / bee products / residues