A laboratory study to evaluate the toxicity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, bait, Success 0.02 CB, to the honey bee, Apis melliferaC. Richard Edwards, Corey K. Gerber and Greg J. Hunt
Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158, USA
(Received 21 June 2002; revised 21 August 2002; accepted 17 September 2002)
USDA APHIS and Moscamed have developed an eradication program for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in North and Central America. Currently, the primary chemical used to control fruit flies in Central America is spinosad, Success 0.02 CB (GF-120). Central America, and Guatemala in particular, has a thriving apiculture industry. Many Guatemalan beekeepers believe that Success is toxic to honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and that its use has resulted in a decrease in bee populations and subsequent honey production. Continuous, limited, and topical exposure studies demonstrated that Success is toxic to honey bees at varying levels, depending upon exposure and drying time, as demonstrated by 24 h bioassays. Future studies should evaluate the effects of Success in the field on foraging honey bees and brood health during a season long Medfly control program to determine possible honeybee impacts.
Key words: Apis mellifera / Ceratitis capitata / spinosad / Success 0.02 CB / toxicity / apiculture
© INRA, EDP Sciences, DIB, AGIB 2003