Phylogeny of the Xeromelissinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) Based upon Morphology and MoleculesEduardo A.B. Almeida1, 2, Laurence Packer3 and Bryan N. Danforth1
1 Comstock Hall, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 USA
2 Current address: Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Cx. Postal 19020, CEP: 81531-980, Curitiba, P.R. Brazil
3 Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada
(Received 18 June 2007 - Revised 15 October 2007 - Accepted 30 October 2007 - Published online 12 February 2008)
Abstract - We present the results of a combined analysis of 248 morphological characters and sequences from 3 genes for 29 species of Xeromelissinae and 7 outgroup taxa including representatives of the colletid subfamilies Colletinae, Euryglossinae, Hylaeinae, Paracolletinae, and Scrapterinae. The paracolletine genus Trichocolletes was used to root the tree. The results agree with most of those obtained in an earlier, entirely morphological analysis. Noteworthy are (1) the paraphyly of Chilimelissa in relation to Xeromelissa, and (2) the lack of sister group relationship between Hylaeinae and Xeromelissinae. Other than minor rearrangements resulting from swapping adjacent nodes, the only major difference is the placement of one species of Chilicola, C. aenigma, which no longer groups within C. (Chilioediscelis), but instead appears to be closer to Xenochilicola. The influence upon phylogenetic results caused by highly morphologically autapomorphic taxa is discussed.
Key words: bee / Colletidae / phylogeny / Neotropical / Xeromelissinae
© INRA, DIB-AGIB, EDP Sciences 2008