Biometrische Unterscheidung zwischen Apis mellifera carnica Poll und allen anderen Rassen von Apis mellifera LD. Kauhausen-Keller
Bayerische Landesanstalt für Bienenzucht, Burgbergstrasse 70, D-8520 Erlangen, Deutschland
Abstract - Discrimination of Apis mellifera carnica Poll from the other races of Apis mellifera L
A study of the best discriminating characters for the differentiation between A m carnica and the other races of A m mellifera L was carried out to protect the home-bred race against the influence of imported honeybees in Germany. The investigation comprised 36 characters of the external morphology of worker bees. The best discriminating characters were extracted by stepwise discriminant analysis comparing A m carnica with 24 different races each. The study showed (table I) that 9 of the races need only the determination of a single character to differentiate between them and A m carnica, another 8 races need 2 or 3 characters for 100% correct classification, 3 races could only be classified to 95% certainty with 3 variables and 2 races, Am cecropia and A m macedonica could only be classified with 90% and 85% certainty respectively. Only 19 out of the 36 measured characters were really needed (table II). The best discriminating characters were 80% characters of the forewing (length and width of the wing, 9 angles of wing venation, distance b on cubital vein), 17% were pigmentation differences and only 3% other morphometric characters. For the discrimination of African honeybee races from A m carnica the length of the forewing is important. In African races it is generally < 0.9 cm, whereas A m carnica has a forewing length of generally > 0.9 cm. Hybrids between these races with A m carnica should therefore show a reduction in forewing size and a supplementary peak in the frequency distribution of the length of the wing. This phenomenon should be a useful indication in detecting influences of African races.
Key words: Apis mellifera carnica / taxonomy / race / morphometrics / discriminating character