Free access
Volume 31, Number 3, May-june 2000
Page(s) 387 - 409


Auclair J.L., Jamieson C.A., A qualitative analysis of amino acids in pollen collected by bees, Science 108 (1948) 357-358.
Barker R.J., Whether the superiority of pollen in diet of honey bees is attributable to its high content of free proline, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65 (1972) 270-271.
Bitondi M.M.G., Simoes Z.L.P., The relationship between level of pollen in the diet, vitellogenin and juvenile hormone titres in Africanized Apis mellifera workers, J. Apic. Res. 35 (1996) 27-36.
Bradford M.M., A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein using the principle of protein-dye binding, Anal. Biochem. 72 (1976) 248-254.
Brouwers E.V.M., Measurement of hypopharyngeal gland activity in the honey bee, J. Apic. Res. 21 (1982) 193-198.
Campana B.J., Moeller F.E., Honey bees: preference for and nutritive value of pollen from five plant sources, J. Econ. Entomol. 70 (1977) 39-41.
Crailsheim K., Interadult feeding of jelly in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies, J. Comp. Physiol. B 161 (1991) 55-60.
Crailsheim K., The flow of jelly within a honeybee colony, J. Comp. Physiol. B 162 (1992) 681-689.
Crailsheim K., Trophallactic interactions in the adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), Apidologie 29 (1998) 97-112.
Crailsheim K., Stolberg E., Influence of diet, age and colony condition upon intestinal proteolytic activity and size of the hypopharyngeal glands in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), J. Insect Physiol. 35 (1989) 595-602.
Crailsheim K., Schneider L.H.W., Hrassnigg N., Bühlmann G., Brosch U., Gmeinbauer R., Schöffmann B., Pollen consumption and utilization in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica): dependence on individual age and function, J. Insect Physiol. 38 (1992) 409-419.
Cremonez T.M., De Jong D., Bitondi M.M.G., Quantification of hemolymph proteins as a fast method for testing protein diets for honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Econ. Entomol. 91 (1998) 1284-1289.
Crompton C.W., Wojtas W.A., Pollen Grains of Canadian Honey Plants, Agric. Canada, Res. Branch, Publ. 1892/E, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1993.
Day S., Beyer R., Mercer A., Ogden S., The nutrient composition of honeybee-collected pollen in Otago, New Zealand, J. Apic. Res. 29 (1990) 138-146.
Dietz A., Stevenson H.R., Influence of long-term storage on the nutritional value of frozen pollen for brood rearing of honey bees, Apidologie 11 (1980) 143-151.
Doull K.M., Effects of attractants and phagostimulants in pollen and pollen supplement on the feeding behaviour of honeybees in the hive, J. Apic. Res. 13 (1974) 47-54.
Doull K.M., Standifer L.N., Feeding responses of honeybees in the hive, J. Apic. Res. 9 (1970) 129-132.
Dunbar B.S., Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis, and Immunological Techniques, Plenum Press, New York, 1987.
Fægri K., Kaland P.E., Krzywinski K., Textbook of Pollen Analysis, 4th ed., Wiley, New York, 1989.
Fanger B.O., Adaptation of the Bradford protein assay to membrane-bound proteins by solubilizing in glucopyranoside detergents, Anal. Biochem. 162 (1987) 11-17.
Gilliam M., McCaughey W.F., Wintermute B., Amino acids in pollens and nectars of citrus cultivars and in stored pollen and honey from honeybee colonies in citrus groves, J. Apic. Res. 19 (1980) 64-72.
Groot A.P. de, Amino-acid requirements for growth of the honey bee, Experientia 8 (1952) 192-194.
Groot A.P. de, Protein and amino acid requirements of the honey bee (Apis mellifica L.), Physiol. Comp. Oecol. 3 (1953) 197-285.
Hagedorn H.H., Burger M., Effect of the age of pollen used in pollen supplements on their nutritive value for the honeybee. II. Effect of vitamin content of pollens, J. Apic. Res. 7 (1968) 97-101.
Hagedorn H.H., Moeller F.E., Effect of the age of pollen used in pollen supplements on their nutritive value for the honeybee. I. Effect on thoracic weight, development of hypopharyngeal glands, and brood rearing, J. Apic. Res. 7 (1968) 89-95.
Harris J.W., Harbo J.R., Suppression of ovary development of worker honeybees by association with workers treated with carbon dioxide, J. Apic. Res. 29 (1990) 187-193.
Haydak M.H., Changes with age in the appearance of some internal organs of the honeybee, Bee World 38 (1957) 197-207.
Haydak M.H., Influence of storage on the nutritive value of pollens for newly emerged honeybees, Am. Bee J. 101 (1961) 354-355.
Haydak M.H., Influence of storage on the nutritive value of pollen for brood rearing by honeybees, J. Apic. Res. 2 (1963) 105-107.
Herbert E.W. Jr., Shimanuki H., Chemical composition and nutritive value of bee-collected and bee-stored pollen, Apidologie 9 (1978) 33-40.
Herbert E.W. Jr., Bickley W.E., Shimanuki H., The brood-rearing capability of caged honey bees fed dandelion and mixed pollen diets J. Econ. Entomol. 63 (1970) 215-218.
Herbert E.W. Jr., Vanderslice T.J., Huang M., Higgs D.J., Levels of thiamine and its esters in bee collected pollen using liquid chromatography and robotics, Apidologie 18 (1987) 129-136.
Hodges D., The Pollen Loads of the Honeybee: A Guide to Their Identification by Colour and Form, 1st ed. (reprinted, with addenda), Int. Bee Res. Assoc., London, UK, 1984.
Hohmann H., Über die Wirkung von Pollenextrakten und Duftstoffen auf das Sammel- und Werbeverhalten höselnder Bienen (Apis mellifica L.), Apidologie 1 (1970) 157-178.
Hrassnigg, N. Crailsheim, C., Adaptation of hypopharyngeal gland development to the brood status of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies, J. Insect Physiol. 44 (1998) 929-939.
Huang Z.-Y., Otis G.W., Factors determining hypopharyngeal gland activity of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), Insectes Soc. 36 (1989) 264-276.
Huang Z.-Y., Otis G.W., Teal P.E.A., Nature of brood signal activating the protein synthesis of hypopharyngeal gland in honey bees, Apis mellifera (Apidae: Hymenoptera), Apidologie 20 (1989) 455-464.
Huang Z.-Y., Robinson G.E., Borst D.W., Physiological correlates of division of labor among similarly aged honey bees, J. Comp. Physiol. 174 (1994) 731-739.
Hügel M.-F., Étude de quelques constituants du pollen, Ann. Abeille 5 (1962) 97-133.
Jay S.C., Factors influencing ovary development of worker honeybees under natural conditions, Can. J. Zool. 46 (1968) 345-347.
Jay S.C., The effect of various combinations of immature queen and worker bees on the ovary development of worker honeybees in colonies with and without queens, Can. J. Zool. 48 (1970) 169-173.
Jay S.C., Jay D.H., The effect of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev.) and yellow flowered broom (Cystisus scoparius Link) pollen on the ovary development of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), Apidologie 24 (1993) 557-563.
Kauffeld N.M., Chemical analysis of Louisiana pollen and colony conditions during a year, Apidologie 11 (1980) 47-55.
Kirk W.D., A Colour Guide to Pollen Loads of the Honey Bee, Int. Bee Res. Assoc., Cardiff, UK, 1994.
Kleinschmidt G.J., Kondos A.C., The influence of crude protein levels on colony production, Aust. Beekeep. 78 (1976) 36-39.
Kleinschmidt G.J., Kondos A.C., The effect of dietary protein on colony performance, Aust. Beekeep. 79 (1978) 251-257.
Knox D.A., Shimanuki H., Herbert E.W., Diet and longevity of adult honey bees, J. Econ. Entomol. 64 (1971) 1415-1416.
Lass A., Crailsheim K., Influence of age and caging upon protein metabolism, hypopharyngeal glands and trophallactic behavior in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), Insectes Soc. 43 (1996) 347-358.
Lehner Y., Nutritional considerations in choosing protein and carbohydrate sources for use in pollen substitutes for honey bees, J. Apic. Res. 22 (1983) 242-248.
Levin M.D., Bohart G.E., Selection of pollen by honey bees, Am. Bee J. 95 (1955) 392-393, 402.
Lin H., Winston, M., The role of nutrition and temperature in the ovarian development of the worker honey bee (Apis mellifera), Can. Entomol. 130 (1998) 883-891.
Loper G.M., Berdel R.L., The effects of nine pollen diets on brood rearing of honeybees, Apidologie 11 (1980) 351-359.
Loper G.M., Cohen A.C., Amino acid content of dandelion pollen, a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) nutritional evaluation, J. Econ. Entomol. 80 (1987) 14-17.
Loper G.M., Standifer L.N., Thompson M.J., Gilliam M., Biochemistry and microbiology of bee-collected almond (Prunus dulcis) pollen and bee-bread, Apidologie 11 (1980) 63-73.
Louveaux J., Recherches sur la récolte du pollen par les abeilles (Apis mellifica L.), Ann. Abeille 2 (1959) 13-111.
Lubliner-Mianowska K., Badania sktadu chemicznego pytku I. Badania pytku jako pokarmu pszczót, Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 25 (1956) 409-419.
Maurizio A., Pollenernährung und Lebens-vorgänge bei der Honigbiene (Apis mellifica L.), Landwirtsch. Jahrb. Schweiz. 68 (1954) 115-182.
Maurizio A., Pollen: its composition collection, utilization and identification, Bee World 35 (1954) 49-50.
McCaughey W.F., Gilliam M., Standifer L.N., Amino acids and protein adequacy for honey bees of pollens from desert plants and other floral sources, Apidologie 11 (1980) 75-86.
McLellan A.R., Minerals, carbohydrates, and amino acids of pollens from some woody and herbaceous plants, Ann. Bot. 41 (1977) 1225-1232.
O'Neal R.J., Waller D., On the pollen harvest by the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) near Tucson, Arizona (1976-1981), Desert Plants 6 (1984) 81-109.
Pain J., Sur quelques facteurs alimentaires, accélérateurs du développment des \oeufs dans les ovaires des ouvrières d'abeilles (Apis m. L.), Insectes Soc. 8 (1961) 31-93.
Pain J., L'alimentation de la jeune abeille, Ann. Nutr. (Paris) 17 (1963) A307-A312.
Peterson G.L., Determination of total protein, in: Hirs C.H.W., Timasheff S.N. (Eds.), Methods in Enzymology, vol. 91, Academic Press, New York, 1983, pp. 95-119.
Rabie A.L., Wells J.D., Dent L.K., The nitrogen content of pollen protein, J. Apic. Res. 22 (1983) 119-123.
Rayner C.J., Langridge D.F., Amino acids in bee-collected pollens from Australian indigenous and exotic plants, Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 25 (1985) 722-726.
Robinson F.A., Nation J.L., Substances that attract caged honeybee colonies to consume pollen supplements and substitutes, J. Apic. Res. 7 (1968) 83-88.
Rosca O., Rusu C., Frasinel C., Contributii la studiul influentei nutritiei suplimentare cu proteine asupra dezvoltrii si activitantii secretorii a glandelor faringiene ale albinelor, Lucr. stiint. Inst. Agron. `Ion Ionescu de la Brad', Iasi II, Ser. Zootehn.-Med. Vet. (1972) 93-98.
Sarkar B.C.R., Wittwer S.H., Luecke R.W., Sell H.M., Quantitative estimation of some amino acids in sweet corn pollen, Arch. Biochem. 22 (1949) 353-355.
SAS Institute, SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Release 6.11, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 1995.
Schmid-Hempel P., Winston M.L., Ydenberg R.C., Foraging of individual workers in relation to colony state in the social Hymenoptera, Can. Entomol. 125 (1993) 129-160.
Schmidt J.O., Feeding preference of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae): individual versus mixed pollen species, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 57 (1984) 323-327.
Schmidt J.O., Phagostimulants in pollen, J. Apic. Res. 24 (1985) 107-114.
Schmidt J.O., Buchmann S.L., Floral biology of the saguaro (Cereus gigantues). I. Pollen harvest by Apis mellifera, Oecologia (Berlin) 69 (1986) 499-503.
Schmidt J.O., Johnson B.E., Pollen feeding preference of Apis mellifera, a polylectic bee, Southwest. Entomol. 9 (1984) 41-47.
Schmidt J.O., Schmidt P.J., Pollen digestibility and its potential nutritional value, Glean. Bee Cult. 112 (1984) 320-322.
Schmidt J.O., Thoenes S.C., Levin M.D., Survival of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hyme-noptera: Apidae), fed various pollen sources, J. Econ. Entomol. 80 (1987) 176-183.
Schmidt J.O., Buchmann S.L., Glaiim M., The nutritional value of Typha latifolia pollen for bees. J. Apic. Res. 28 (1989) 155-165.
Schmidt L.S., Schmidt J.O., Rao H., Wang W., Xu L., Feeding preference of young worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fed rape, sesame, and sunflower pollen, J. Econ. Entomol. 88 (1995) 1591-1595.
Seeley T.D., Adaptive significance of the age polyethism schedule in honeybee colonies, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 11 (1982) 287-293.
Shawer M.B., Major pollen sources in Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, and the effect of pollen supply on brood area and honey yield, J. Apic. Res. 26 (1987) 43-46.
Shawer M.B., Ali S.M., Abdellatif M.A., El-Refai A.A., Biochemical studies of bee-collected pollen in Egypt. 2. Fatty acids and non-saponifiables, J. Apic. Res. 26 (1987) 133-136.
Smith M.V., Adie A., A new design in pollen traps, Can. Bee J. 74 (1963) 4-5, 8.
Snedecor G.W., Cochran W.G., Statistical Methods, 7th ed., Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA, 1980.
Solberg Y., Remedios G., Chemical composition of pure and bee-collected pollen, Meld. Nor. Landbrukshogsk. 59 (1980) 1-12.
Stace P., Pollen quality: canola (Brassica spp.), Bee Briefs 9 (1992) 2.
Standifer L.N., A comparison of the protein quality of pollens for growth-stimulation of the hypopharyngeal glands and longevity of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Insectes Soc. 14 (1967) 415-426.
Standifer L.N., McCaughey W.F., Todd F.E., Kremmerer A.R., Relative availability of various proteins to the honey bee, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 53 (1960) 618-625.
Standifer L.N., Macdonald R.H., Levin M.D., Influence of the quality of protein in pollens and of a pollen substitute on the development of hypopharyngeal glands in honey bees, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63 (1970) 909-910.
Standifer L.N., McCaughey W.F., Dixon S.E., Gilliam M., Loper G.M., Biochemistry and microbiology of pollen collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from almond, Prunus dulcis. II. Protein, amino acids and enzymes, Apidologie 11 (1980) 163-171.
Stanley R.G., Linskens H.F., Pollen: Biology, Biochemistry and Management, Springer, Berlin, 1974.
Starrat A.N., Boch R., Synthesis of octadeca-trans-2, cis-9, cis-12-trienoic acid and its evaluation as a honey bee attractant, Can. J. Biochem. 49 (1971) 251-254.
Svoboda J., The value of pollen as food for bees, Bee World 21 (1940) 105-107.
Todd F.E., Bretherick, O., The composition of pollen, J. Econ. Entomol. 35 (1942) 312-317.
Townsend G.F., Smith M.V., Pollen storage for bee feed, Am. Bee J. 109 (1969) 14-15.
Velthuis H.H.W., Ovarian development in Apis mellifera worker bees, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 13 (1970) 377-394.
Vivino A.E., Palmer L.S., The chemical composition and nutritional value of pollens collected by bees, Arch. Biochem. 4 (1944) 129-136.
Vorst E. van der, Mattys J., Rycke P.H. de, Jacobs F.J., Comparative lipid composition of colony- and laboratory-stored pollen, J. Apic. Res. 21 (1982) 174-177.
Wahl O., Vergleichende Untersuchungen über den Nährwert von Pollen, Hefe, Sojamehl und Trockenmilch für die Honigbiene (Apis mellifica L.), Z. Bienenforsch. 6 (1963) 209-280.
Waldbauer G.P., Friedman S., Self-selection of optimal diets by insects, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36 (1991) 43-63.
Weaver N., Kuiken K.A., Quantitative analysis of the essential amino acids of royal jelly and some pollens, J. Econ. Entomol. 44 (1951) 635-638.
Wille H., Wille M., Kitchenmann V., Imdorf A., Bühlmann G., Pollenernte und Massenwechsel von drei Apis mellifera-Völkern auf demselben Bienenstand in zwei aufeinanderfolgenden Jahren, Rev. Suisse Zool. 92 (1985) 897-914.
Yousseff A.M., Farag R.S., Ewies M.A., El-Shakaa S.M.A., Chemical studies on pollen collected by honeybees in Giza region, Egypt, J. Apic. Res. 17 (1978) 110-113.


Copyright INRA/DIB/AGIB/EDP Sciences