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Table II

Evidence of pathogen/parasite transmission from non-native Bombus and Apis species imported for commercial crop pollination.

From To Pathogen Location Reference
B. terrestris Native conspecifics & congenerics Nosema bombi Europe Schmid-Hempel, 1998
B. terrestris & B. ignitus Native conspecifics & congenerics Locustacarus buchneri Japan Goka et al., 2001; Goka, 2006
B. impatiens Native conspecifics & congenerics Crithidia bombi Canada Colla et al., 2006; Otterstatter and Thomson, 2008
A. mellifera B. terrestris and B. pascuorum Deformed wing virus Europe Genersch et al., 2006
A. mellifera B. impatiens Aethina tumida North America Hoffmann et al., 2008*
A. mellifera B. impatiens** Aethina tumida Florida, USA Spiewok and Neumann, 2006
A. cerana A. mellifera Nosema ceranae Spain, Europe Higes et al., 2006
A. cerana A. mellifera Nosema ceranae Taiwan Huang et al., 2007
A. cerana A. mellifera Varroa destructor Asia Akratanakul and Burgett, 1975; de Jong et al., 1982

Potential for transmission demonstrated, no evidence of host switch in the wild.


Commercial colonies.