Ovarian activation of surviving bees from 3 colonies on day 14. Data are for bees fed sucrose, casein in the protein:carbohydrate (P:C) ratios 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3, and royal jelly in a 1:3 ratio. On the remaining diets (see Fig. 1) none of the bees survived for 14 days. Ovarian activation score is given as mean ± SD (n in bar = number of bees; for casein 1:1 SD = 0). Different letters denote significant differences at the P < 0.05 level based on multiple comparison of mean ranks for all groups.