Geographical distribution of Varroa destructor mitochondrial haplotypes on Apis cerana and A. mellifera (in bold). All haplotypes were identified as V. destructor except two L1 haplotypes, which belong to V. jacobsoni (circled) from Thailand. The V. destructor haplotypes found on A. mellifera elsewhere are K1-1 and J1-1 (Solignac et al., 2005). Solid line indicates approximate range of V. destructor and dotted line is that of V. jacobsoni, after Anderson and Trueman (2000) and data provided by D.L. Anderson.