Origin, collection details and identity of Varroa destructor (VD) and V. jacobsoni (VJ) isolates examined from Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) (shaded) collected in Asia. Mites were assigned to a known (e.g. V1) or new haplogroups based on partial nucleotide sequence (458 bp) of their mtDNA cox1 gene (Anderson and Trueman, 2000). Haplotypes were also further defined (e.g. V1-2) based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of fragments of their mtDNA cox1, cox3, atp6 and cytb gene sequences (2700 bp) obtained in this study.