Free Access
Volume 34, Number 3, May-June 2003
Page(s) 299 - 309


  • Afik O., Shafir S. (2001) Effect of ambient temperature on crop load size in honeybees, Phytoparasitica 29, 80 (abstract).
  • Aldrich J.H., Nelson F.D. (1984) Linear probability, logit, and probit models, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, California.
  • Alpatov V.V. (1948) Bee races and red clover pollination, Bee World 29, 61-63.
  • Baker H.G., Baker I. (1983) A brief historical review on the chemistry of floral nectar, in: Bentley B., Elias T. (Eds.), The biology of nectaries, Columbia University Press, NY, pp. 129-152.
  • Basualdo M., Bedascarrasbure E., De Jong D. (2000) Africanized honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have a greater fidelity to sunflowers than European bees, J. Econ. Entomol. 93, 304-307.
  • Bergh B.O. (1967) Reasons for low yields of avocados, CA Avoc. Soc. Ybk. 51, 161-172.
  • Bergh B.O. (1969) Avocado, in: Ferwerda F.P., Wit F. (Eds.), Outlines of perennial crop breeding in the tropics, Veenman and Zonen N.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 23-51.
  • Bergh B.O. (1986) Persea americana, in: Halevy A.H. (Ed.), Handbook of flowering, Vol. 5, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 253-268.
  • Calderone N.W., Page R.E. (1988) Genotypic variability in age polyethism and task specialization in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22, 17-25.
  • Cobey S. (1999) The New World Carniolan closed population breeding project, in: Proc. 36th Apimondia Congr. Vancouver, Canada, Apimondia Publ. House, Bucharest, pp. 26-27.
  • Cobey S., Lawrence T. (1988) Commercial application and practical use of the Page-Laidlaw closed population breeding program, Am. Bee J. 128, 341-344.
  • Danka R.G., Rinderer T.E. (1986) Africanized bees and pollination, Am. Bee J. 126, 680-682.
  • Davenport T.L. (1986) Avocado flowering, Hortic. Rev. 8, 257-289.
  • Davenport T.L. (1998) What if there is no pollinator? Subtrop. Fruit News 6, 15-17.
  • Dietz A. (1992) Honey bees of the world, in: Graham J.M. (Ed.), The hive and the honey bee, Dadant and Sons, Hamilton, IL, pp. 23-61.
  • Gary N.E., Witherell P.C. (1977) Distribution of foraging bees of three honey bee stocks located near onion and safflower fields, Environ. Entomol. 6, 785-788.
  • Gary N.E., Witherell P.C., Lorenzen, K. (1978) The distribution and foraging activities of common Italian and "Hy-Queen'' honey bees during Alfalfa pollination, Environ. Entomol. 7, 233-240.
  • Gazit S. (1977) Pollination and fruit set of avocado, in: Saults J.W., Philips R.L., Jackson L.K. (Eds.), Proc., First Int. Trop. Fruit Short Course: the Avocado, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL, pp. 88-92.
  • Gordon D.M., Barthell J.F., Page R.E., Fondrk M.K., Thorp R.W. (1995) Colony performance of selected honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) strains used for Alfalfa pollination, J. Econ. Entomol. 88, 51-57.
  • Hellmich R.L., Kulincevic J.M., Ruthenbuhler W.C. (1985) Selection for high and low pollen- hoarding honey bees, J. Hered. 76, 155-158.
  • Hunt G.J., Page R.E., Fondrk M.K., Dullum C.J. (1995) Major quantitative trait loci affecting honey bee foraging behavior, Genetics 141, 1537-1545.
  • Ish-Am G. (1994) Interrelationship between avocado flowering and honey bees and its implication on the avocado fruitfulness in Israel, Ph.D. Thesis, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (in Hebrew).
  • Ish-Am G., Eisikowitch D. (1992) New insight into avocado flowering in relation to its pollination, CA Avoc. Soc. Ybk. 75, 125-137.
  • Ish-Am G., Eisikowitch D. (1993) The behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera) visiting avocado (Persea americana) flowers and their contribution to its pollination, J. Apic. Res. 32, 175-186.
  • Ish-Am G., Eisikowitch D. (1998) Low attractiveness of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) flowers to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) limits fruit set in Israel, J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 73, 195-204.
  • Ish-Am G., Barrientos-Priego A.F., Castaneda-Vildozola A., Gazit S. (1999) Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) pollinators in its region of origin, Rev. Chapingo Ser. Hortic. 5, 137-143.
  • Kacelnik A., Houston A.I., Schmid-Hempel P. (1986) Central-place foraging in honey bees: the effect of travel time and nectar flow on crop filling, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 19,19-24.
  • Liu X., Sherman G., Robinson P.W., Witney G.W., Arpaia M.L. (1995) Nectar sugar composition of selected avocado cultivars and related species, Subtrop. Fruit News 3, 8-9.
  • Liu X., Robinson P.W., Madore M.A., Witney G.W., Arpaia M.L. (1999) `Hass' carbohydrate fluctuations. I. Growth and phenology, J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 124, 671-675.
  • Mackensen O., Nye W.P. (1966) Selection and breeding of honeybees for collecting alfalfa pollen, J. Apic. Res. 12, 187-190.
  • Milne C.P. Jr., Pries K.J. (1986) Honeybees with larger corbiculae carry larger pollen pellets, J. Apic. Res. 25, 53-54.
  • Milne C.P. Jr., Hellmich R.L., Pries K.J. (1986) Corbicular size in workers from honeybee lines selected for high or low pollen hoarding, J. Apic. Res. 25, 50-52.
  • Nye W.P., Mackensen O. (1968) Selective breeding of honey bees for alfalfa pollination: fifth generation and backcross, J. Apic. Res. 7, 21-27.
  • Nye W.P., Mackensen O. (1970) Selective breeding of honey bees for alfalfa pollen collection: with tests in high and low alfalfa pollen collection regions, J. Apic. Res. 9, 61-64.
  • Page R.E. (1999) Commercial management of honey bees for pollination, in: 36th Apimondia Congress Proc., Vancouver, Canada, pp. 124-125.
  • Page R.E., Erber J., Fondrk M.K. (1998) The effect of genotype on response thresholds to sucrose and foraging behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), J. Comp. Physiol. A 182, 489-500.
  • Page R.E., Fondrk M.K., Hunt G.J., Guzman-Novoa E., Humphries M.A., Nguyen K., Greene A.S. (2000) Genetic dissection of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging behavior, J. Hered. 91, 474-479.
  • Robbertse H., Johannsmeier M.F., Morudu T.M. (1998) Pollination of `Hass' avocados, S. Afr. Avocado Growers' Assn. Ybk. 21, 63-68.
  • Schaffer A.A., Nerson H., Zamski E. (1991) Premature leaf chlorosis in cucumber associated with high starch accumulation, J. Plant Physiol. 138, 189-190.
  • Schmid-Hempel P., Kacelnik A., Houston A.I. (1985) Honeybees maximize efficiency by not filling their crop, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 17, 61-66.
  • Shafir S., Afik O. (2001) The effect of ambient temperature on crop load size in honey bees, in: Sommeijer M., de Ruijter A. (Eds.), Proc. of the specialists' meeting on insect pollination in greenhouses, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, pp. 155-161.
  • Sokal R.R., Rohlf F.J. (1995) Biometry, 3rd ed., W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 887 p.
  • Southwick E.E., Roubik D.W., Williams J.M. (1990) Comparative energy balance in groups of Africanized and European honey bees: ecological implications, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 97A, 1-7.
  • Stern R.A., Eisikowitch D., Dag A. (2001) Sequential introduction of honeybee colonies and doubling their density increase cross-pollination, fruit set and yield in `Red Delicious' apple, J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 76, 17-23.
  • Stout A.B. (1923) A study in cross-pollination of avocados in Southern California, Calif. Avocado Assoc. Annu. Rep. 1922-1923, 29-45.
  • Vithanage H.I.N.V. (1990) The role of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in avocado pollination, J. Hortic. Sci. 65, 81-86.


Copyright INRA/DIB/AGIB/EDP Sciences