Free Access
Volume 40, Number 3, May-June 2009
Bee conservation
Page(s) 285 - 295
Published online 07 July 2009
References of  Apidologie 40 (2009) 285–295
  • Allsopp M.H. (1997) The honeybee parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni, S. Afr. Bee J. 69, 73–82.
  • Allsopp M.H. (2004) Cape honeybee (Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz) and Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman) threats to honeybees and beekeeping in Africa, Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 24, 87–94.
  • Allsopp M. (2006) Analysis of Varroa destructor infestation of Southern African populations, MSc Thesis University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Anderson D. (2008) Health regulations of bees in Australia, OIE symposium diagnosis and control of bee diseases, Freiburg i. Breisgau, 26–28 August.
  • Anderson R.H. (1980) Cape honeybee sanctuaries, S. Afr. Bee J. 52, 5–9.
  • Beekeeping Act (2002) The United Republic of Tanzania, [online] (accessed 23 January 2009).
  • Beekeeping Act (2006) The United Republic of Tanzania, [online] (accessed 23 January 2009).
  • Bradbear N. (1988) World distribution of major honeybee diseases and pests, Bee World 69, 15–17.
  • Brown M., Ward L., Budge G., Boonham N. (2008) Risk based inspections for detection of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), OIE Symp. Diagnosis and control of bee diseases, Freiburg i. Breisgau, 26–28 August.
  • Crane E. (1990) Bees and beekeeping: science, practice and world resources, Heinemann Newnes, Oxford.
  • Crane E. (1999) The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting, Routledge, NY.
  • Clauss B. (1991) Bees and beekeeping in the North Western Province of Zambia, Forest Department and Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Beekeeping Survey, Ndola, Zambia, 131 p.
  • Clauss B. (1992) Bees and Beekeeping in the north western Province of Zambia. Mission Press, Ndola, Zambia.
  • Corrêa-Marques M.H., De Jong D., Rosenkranz P., Gonçalves L.S. (2002) Varroa-tolerant Italian honey bees introduced from Brazil were not more efficient in defending themselves against the mite Varroa destructor than Carniolan bees in Germany, Genet. Mol. Res. 1, 153–158 [PubMed].
  • Crewe R.M., Allsopp M.H. (1993) The Cape bee as a Trojan horse rather than the hordes of Genghis Khan, Am. Bee J. 133, 121–123.
  • DeJong D. (1997) Mites: varroa and other parasites of brood. In: Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases, in: Morse R.A., Nowogrodzki R. (Eds.), Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, pp. 279–327.
  • Danka R.G., Villa J.D. (1994) Preliminary observations on the susceptibility of Africanized honey bees to American foulbrood, J. Apic. Res. 33, 243–245.
  • De La Rúa P., Jaffé R., Dall'Olio R., Munozi I., Serrano J. (2009) Biodiversity, conservation and current threats to European honeybees, Apidologie 40, 263–284 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Dietemann V., Lubbe A., Crewe R.M. (2006) Human factors facilitating the spread of a parasitic honeybee in South Africa, J. Econ. Entomol. 99, 7–13 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Eardley C.D., Gikungu M., Schwarz M.P. (2009) Bee Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: Diversity, Status and Threats, Apidologie 40, 355–366 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • EC (2004) Achievements in agricultural policy under commissioner Franz Fischler (Period 1995-2004) [online] (accessed 23 January 2009).
  • El Shafie H.A.F., Mogga J.B.B., Basedow T.H. (2002) Studies on the possible competition for pollen between the honey bee, Apis mellifera sudanensis, and the imported dwarf honey bee Apis florea (Hym., Apidae) in North-Khartoum (Sudan), J. Appl. Entomol. 126, 557–562 [CrossRef].
  • El-Niweiri T., El-Sarrag M.S., Neumann P. (2008) Filling the Sudan gap: the Northernmost natural distribution limit of small hive beetles, J. Apic. Res. 47, 183–184.
  • Fries I., Raina S. (2003) American Foulbrood and African Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), J. Econ. Entomol. 96, 1641–1646 [PubMed].
  • Guerra J.C.V., Goncalves L.S., de Jong D. (2000) Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids, Genet. Mol. Biol. 23, 89–92.
  • Härtel S., Neumann P., Kryger P., von der Heide C., Moltzer G.J., Crewe R., van Praagh J.P., Moritz R.F.A. (2006) Infestation levels of Apis mellifera scutellata swarms by socially parasitic Cape honeybee workers (Apis mellifera capensis), Apidologie 37, 462–470 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Hassan A.R., Neumann P. (2008) A survey for the small hive beetle in Egypt, J. Apic. Res. 47, 185–186.
  • Hepburn H.R., Guillarmod J. (1991) The Cape honeybee and the fynbos biome, S. Afr. J. Sci. 87, 70–73.
  • Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E. (1998) Honeybees of Africa, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
  • Hussein M.H. (2000) Beekeeping in Africa, Apiacta 1, 32–48.
  • Ibrahim A., Spivak M. (2007) The relationship between hygienic behavior and suppression of mite reproduction as honey bee (Apis mellifera) mechanisms of resistance to Varroa destructor, Apidologie 37, 31–40 [CrossRef].
  • Iremonger S., Ravilious C., Quinton T. (1997) A statistical analysis of global forest conservation, in: Iremonger S., Ravilious C., Quinton T. (Eds.), A global overview of forest conservation. Including: GIS files of forests and protected areas, version 2. CD-ROM. CIFOR and WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
  • Jaffé R., Dietemann V., Crewe R.M., Moritz R.F.M. (2009) Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: an insight into the population dynamics of wild African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata), Mol. Ecol., doi: 10.1111/j.1365–294X.2009.04143.x.
  • Johannsmeier M.F. (2001) Beekeeping in South Africa, 3rd ed., revised, Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 14, Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Kajobe R., Roubik D.W. (2006) Honey-making bee colony abundance and predation by apes and humans in an Ugandan forest reserve, Biotropica 38, 210–218 [CrossRef].
  • Kelatwang S., Garzuglia M. (2006) Changes in forest area in Africa 1990–2005, Int. Forest. Rev. 8, 21–30 [CrossRef].
  • Kidd A.D., Schrimpf B. (2000) Bees and bee-keeping in Africa, in: Blench R.M., MacDonald K.C. (Eds.), The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, genetics, linguistics and ethnography, London, UCL Press, pp. 503–526.
  • Kraus B., Page E.R. (1995) Effect of Varroa jacobsoni (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) on feral Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in California, Environ. Entomol. 24, 1473–1480.
  • Le Conte Y., De Vaublanc G., Crauser D., Jeanne F., Rouselle J.C., Bécard J.M. (2007) Honey bee colonies that have survived Varroa destructor, Apidologie 38, 566–572 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Lohr W. (1998) Micro-enterprises in sustainable beekeeping development, Bees Development 48.
  • Lundie A.E. (1940) The small hive beetle Aethina tumida, Sci. Bull. 220, Dept. Agric. Forestry, Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Matheson A. (1996) World bee health update 1996, Bee World 77, 45–51.
  • Mogga J.B. (1994) Comparison between the daily flight activity of Apis mellifera yemenitica R and Apis florea F in Khartoum, Apidologie 25, 490.
  • Mogga J.B., Abdin A.M.Z.E., Nagi S.K.A., Ali A.M. (1989) Apis florea in Sudan: some biological observations, Proc 4th Int Conf Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo, Egypt, pp. 422–424.
  • Mondragón L., Spivak M., Vandame R. (2005) A multifactorial study of the resistance of honeybees Apis mellifera to the mite Varroa destructor over one year in Mexico, Apidologie 36, 345–358 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Moretta G., Gonçalves L.S., De Jong D., Bichuette M.Z. (1991) The effects of climate and bee race on Varroa jacobsoni Oud infestations in Brazil, Apidologie 22, 197–203 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Härtel S., Neumann P. (2005) Global invasions of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the consequences for biodiversity, Ecoscience 12, 289–301 [CrossRef].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Kraus F.B., Kryger P., Crewe R.M. (2007) The size of wild honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) and its implications for the conservation of honeybees, J. Insect Conserv. 11, 391–397 [CrossRef].
  • Morse R.A., Flottum K. (1997) Honeybee pests, diseases, and predator, 3rd ed. Medina, OH (USA) A.I. Root Co.
  • Mostafa A.M., Williams R.N. (2000) New record of the small hive beetle in Egypt and notes on its distribution and control, Bee World 83, 99–108.
  • Nel E., Illgner P.M., Wilkins K., Robertson M.P. (2000) Rural Self-Reliance in Bondolfi, Zimbabwe: the role of beekeeping, Geogr. J. 166, 26–34 [CrossRef].
  • Neumann P., Hepburn H.R. (2002) Behavioural basis for social parasitism of Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), Apidologie 33, 165–192 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Neumann P., Elzen P.J. (2004) The biology of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): Gaps in our knowledge of an invasive species, Apidologie 35, 229–247 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Ntenga G.M., Mugongo B.T. (1991) Honey hunters and beekeepers: A study of traditional bee-keeping in Babati District, Tanzania, International Rural Development Centre Working Paper 161. Uppsala, Sweden: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
  • Ongus J.R. (2006) Varroa destructor virus 1: A new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees, Thesis Wageningen Univ. [online] (accessed 23 January 2009).
  • Rinderer T., De Guzman L.I., Delatte G.T., Stelzer J.A., Lancaster V.A., Kunetsov V., Beaman L., Watts R., Harris J.W. (2001) Resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bees from far-eastern Russia, Apidologie 32, 381–394 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Ritter W., Michel P., Bartholdi M., Schwendemann A. (1990) Development of tolerance to Varroa jacobsoni in bee colonies in Tunisia, Proc. Int. Symp. on Recent research on bee pathology, September 5–7, Ghent, Belgium.
  • Rouget M., Richardson D.M., Cowling R.M., Lloyd J.W., Lombard A.T. (2003) Current patterns of habitat transformation and future threats to biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems of the Cape Floristic Region, S. Afr. Biol. Conserv. 112, 63–85 [CrossRef].
  • Ruttner F. (1977) The problem of the Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz): parthenogenesis – size of the population – evolution, Apidologie 8, 281–294 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Schneider S.S., Grandi-Hoffman G., Smith D.R. (2004) The African honeybee: factors contributing to a successful biological invasion, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 49, 351–376 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Scholmke W., Schmolke M. (2003) Varroa has arrived in Zimbabwe, Bees Dev. J. 68, 13.
  • Sheppard W.S., Rinderer T.E., Mazzoli J.A., Stelzer J.A., Shimunaki H. (1991) Gene Flow between African- and European-Derived Honey Bee Populations in Argentina, Nature 349, 782–784 [CrossRef].
  • Smith F.G. (1962) Beekeeping as a Forest Industry, Br. Commonwealth Forestry Conference, 6 p.
  • The South African Biodiversity Act (10/2004) Government Gazette 8 Feb 2008 [online] ABS Regulation _08 February 2008.pdf (accessed 23 January 2009).
  • Thomas C.D., Cameron A., Green R.E., Bakkenes M., Beaumont L.J., Collingham Y.C., Erasmus B.F.N., de Siqueira M.F., an Grainger M.F., Hannah L., Hughes L., Huntley B., van Jaarsveld A.S., Midgley G.F., Miles L., Ortega-Huerta M.A., Peterson A.T., Phillips O.L., Williams S.E. (2004) Extinction risk from climate change, Nature 427, 145–148 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Total transformation Agribusiness (2004) Situation analysis of beekeeping industry in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe [online] (accessed 23 January 2009).
  • Tribe G.D. (1983) What is the Cape bee? S. Afr. Bee J. 55, 77–87.
  • Whitfield C.W., Behura S.K, Stewart I., Berlocher H., Clark A.G., Johnston J.S., Sheppard W.S., Smith D.R., Suarez A.V., Weaver D., Tsutsui, N.D. (2006) Thrice out of Africa: ancient and recent expansions of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, Science 314, 642–645 [CrossRef] [PubMed].