Free Access
Volume 41, Number 2, March-April 2010
Page(s) 141 - 150
Published online 27 November 2009
  • Bennis S., Chami F., Chami N., Bouchikhi T., Remmal A. (2004) Surface alteration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol and eugenol, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 38, 454–458. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bogdanov S., Kilchenmann V., Imdorf A., Fluri P. (1998) Residues in honey after application of thymol against varroa using the franko thymol frame, Am. Bee J. 133, 610–611.
  • Cantwell G.E. (1970) Standard methods for counting Nosema spores, Am. Bee J. 110, 222–223.
  • Chauzat M.P., Higes M., Martin-Hernandez R., Meana A., Cougoule N., Faucon J.P. (2007) Presence of Nosema ceranae in French honey bee colonies, J. Apicult. Res. 46, 127–128. [CrossRef]
  • Chen Y., Evans J.D., Smith I.B., Pettis J.S. (2008) Nosema ceranae is a long-present and wide-spread microsporidian infection of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the United States, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 97, 186–188. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Chiesa F. (1991) Effective control of varroatosis using powdered thymol, Apidologie 22, 135–145. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Dambolena J.S., Lopez A.G., Canepa M.C., Theumer M.G., Zygadlo J.A., Rubinstein H.R. (2008) Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, Toxicon 51, 37–44. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Dann J.M., Sykes P.H., Mason D.R., Evans J.J. (2009) Resveratrol and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate Reduce VEGF Secretion from Endometrial Tumour Cells, Reproductive Sciences 16, p. 151A.
  • Detzel A., Wink M. (1993) Attraction, deterrence or intoxication of bees (Apis mellifera) by plant allelochemicals, Chemoecology 4, 8–18. [CrossRef]
  • Ebert T.A., Kevan P.G., Bishop B.L., Kevan S.D., Downer R.A. (2007) Oral toxicity of essential oils and organic acids fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera), J. Apicult. Res. 46, 220–224. [CrossRef]
  • EC (2007) Council Regulation N. 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) N. 2092/91, Official Journal of the European Union L189, 20.07.2007, pp. 1–23.
  • Fries I. (1993) Nosema apis - A parasite in the honey bee colony, Bee World 74, 5–19.
  • Fries I., Elkbohm G., Villumstad E. (1984) Nosema apis, sampling techniques and honey yield, J. Apicult. Res. 23, 102–105.
  • Fries I., Feng F., daSilva A., Slemenda S.B., Pieniazek N.J. (1996) Nosema ceranae n sp (Microspora, Nosematidae), morphological and molecular characterization of a microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Eur. J. Protistol. 32, 356–365.
  • Goodwin M., Houten A., Perry J., Blackmann R. (1990) Cost benefit analysis of using fumagillin to treat nosema, New Zeal. Beekeeper 208, 11–12.
  • Higes M., García-Palencia P., Martín-Hernández R., Meana A. (2007) Experimental infection of Apis mellifera honey bees with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), J. Invertebr. Pathol. 94, 211–217. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Higes M., Martín R., Meana A. (2006) Nosema ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honey bees in Europe, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 92, 93–95. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Higes M., Martin-Hernandez R., Botias C., Bailon E.G., Gonzalez-Porto A.V., Barrios L., Del Nozal M.J., Bernal J.L., Jimenez J.J., Palencia P.G., Meana A. (2008) How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honey bee colony collapse, Environ. Microbiol. 10, 2659–2669. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Higes M., Martin-Hernandez R., Garrido-Bailón E., Gonzalez-Porto A.V., Garcìa-Palencia P., Meana A., Del Nozal M.J., Mayo R., Bernal J.L. (2009) Honey bee colony collapse due to Nosema ceranae in professional apiaries, Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 1, 110–113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Howitz K.T., Bitterman K.J., Cohen H.Y., Lamming D.W., Lavu S., Wood J.G., Zipkin R.E., Chung P., Kisielewski A., Zhang L.L., Scherer B., Sinclair D.A. (2003) Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan, Nature 425, 191–196. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Huang W.F., Bocquet M., Lee K.C., Sung I.H., Jiang J.H., Chen Y.W., Wang C.H. (2008) The comparison of rDNA spacer regions of Nosema ceranae isolates from different hosts and locations, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 97, 9–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Imdorf A., Kilchenmann V., Bogdanov S., Bachofen B., Beretta C. (1995) Toxic effects of thymol, camphor, menthol and eucalyptol on Varroa jacobsoni Oud and Apis mellifera L in a laboratory test, Apidologie 26, 27–31. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Juven B.J., Kanner J., Schved F., Weisslowicz H. (1994) Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 76, 626–631. [PubMed]
  • Katznelson H., Jamieson H. (1952) Control of nosema disease with fumagillin, Science 115, 70–71. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Klee J., Besana A.M., Genersch E., Gisder S., Nanetti A., Tam D.Q., Chinh T.X., Puerta F., Ruz J.M., Kryger P., Message D., Hatjina F., Korpela S., Fries I., Paxton R.J. (2007) Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 96, 1–10. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Leiro J., Cano E., Ubeira F.M., Orallo F., Sanmartìn M.L. (2004) In vitro effects of resveratrol on the viability and infectivity of the Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Antimicrob. Agents Ch. 48, 2497–2501. [CrossRef]
  • Lenga R.E. (1988) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation 35.
  • Liu T.P. (1973) Effects of Fumidil B on the spore of Nosema apis and on lipids of the host cell as revealed by freeze-etching, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22, 364–368. [CrossRef]
  • Luna C., Li G.R., Liton P.B., Qiu J.M., Epstein R.L., Challa P., Gonzalez P. (2009) Resveratrol prevents the expression of glaucoma markers induced by chronic oxidative stress in trabecular meshwork cells, Food Chem. Toxicol. 47, 198–204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • MacDonald D.N. (1978) Diseases of the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymeoptera: Apidae) in British Colombia, with special emphasis on nosema disease, Nosema apis (Sporozoa: Nosematidae), in the lower Fraser Valley, 13. Simon Fraser University, Canada.
  • Mahmoud A.L.E. (1999) Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus by extracts of some Egyptian plants, L., Appl. Microbiol. 29, 334–336. [CrossRef]
  • Maistrello L., Lodesani M., Costa C., Leonardi F., Marani G., Caldon M., Mutinelli F., Granato A. (2008) Screening of natural compounds for the control of nosema disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera), Apidologie 39, 436–445. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Malone L.A., Stefanovic D. (1999) Comparison of the responses of two races of honey bees to infection with Nosema apis Zander, Apidologie 30, 375–382. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Malone L.A., Giacon H.A., Newton M.R. (1995) Comparison of the responses of some New Zealand and Australian honey bees (Apis mellifera L) to Nosema apis Z, Apidologie 26, 495–502. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Martin P. (2003) Veterinary drug residues in honey, Apiacta 38, 21–23.
  • Martìn-Hernández R., Meana A., Prieto L., Martìnez Salvador A., Garrido-Bailón E., Higes M. (2007) Outcome of colonization of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae, Appl. Environ. Microb. 73, 6331–6338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Matheson A. (1996) World bee health update, Bee World 77, 45–51.
  • Mayack C., Naug D. (2009) Energetic stress in the honey bee Apis mellifera from Nosema ceranae infection, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 100, 185–188. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Moffet J.O., Lackett J.J., Hitchcock J.D. (1969) Compounds tested for control of nosema in honey bees, J. Econ. Entomol. 62, 886–889.
  • Naug D., Gibbs A. (2009) Behavioral changes mediated by hunger in honey bees infected with Nosema ceranae, Apidologie, DOI: 10.1051/apido/2009039.
  • Pallas M., Casadesus G., Smith M.A., Coto-Montes A., Pelegri C., Vilaplana J., Camins A. (2009) Resveratrol and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Activation of SIRT1 as the Potential Pathway towards Neuroprotection, Curr. Neurovasc. Res. 6, 70–81. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Park J.S., Kim K.M., Kim M.H., Chang H.J., Baek M.K., Kim S.M., Do Jung Y. (2009) Resveratrol Inhibits Tumor Cell Adhesion to Endothelial Cells by Blocking ICAM-1 Expression, Anticancer Res. 29, 355–362. [PubMed]
  • Paxton R.J., Klee J., Korpela S., Fries I. (2007) Nosema ceranae has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998 and may be more virulent than Nosema apis, Apidologie 38, 558–565. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Rice R.N. (2001) Nosema disease in honey bees. Genetic variation and control. Report n. 01/46, Australian Government, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
  • Shapiro S., Guggenheim B. (1995) The action of thymol on oral bacteria, Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 10, 241–246. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Svircev A.M., Smith R.J., Zhou T., Hernadez M., Liu W., Chu C.L. (2007) Effects of thymol fumigation on survival and ultrastracture of Monilinia fructicola, Postharvest Biol. Tech. 45, 228–233. [CrossRef]
  • Szabo T.I., Heikel D.T. (1987) Effect of dry fumagillin feeding on spring Nosema spore counts in overwintered colonies, Am. Bee J. 127, 210–211.
  • Tay W.T., O’Mahony E., Paxton, R.J. (2005) Complete rRNA gene sequences reveal that the Microsporidium Nosema bombi infects diverse bumble bee (Bombus spp.) hosts, yet contains multiple polymorphic sites, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52, 505–513. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Valenzano D.R., Terzibasi E., Genade T., Cattaneo A., Domenici L., Cellerino A. (2006) Resveratrol prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in a short-lived vertebrate, Curr. Biol. 16, 296–300. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Viollon C., Chaumont J.P. (1994) Antifungal properties of essential oils e their main components upon Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycopathologia 123, 151–153. [CrossRef]
  • Williams G.R., Sampson M.A., Shutler D., Rogers R.E.L. (2008a) Does fumagillin control the recently detected invasive parasite Nosema ceranae in western honey bees (Apis mellifera)? J. Invertebr. Pathol. 99, 342–344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Williams G.R., Shafer A.B.A., Rogers R.E.L., Shutler D., Stewart D.T. (2008b) First detection of Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite of European honey bees (Apis mellifera), in Canada and central USA, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 97, 189–192. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Wood J.G., Rogina B., Lavu S., Howitz K., Helfand S.L., Tatar M., Sinclair D. (2004) Sirtuin activators mimic caloric restriction and delay ageing in metazoans, Nature 431, 107. [CrossRef]
  • Wyborn M.H., McCutcheon D.M. (1987) A comparison of dry and wet fumagillin treatments for spring nosema disease suppression of overwintered colonies, Am. Bee J. 127, 207–209.