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Volume 32, Number 6, November-December 2001
Page(s) 527 - 545
DOI: 10.1051/apido:2001102

Apidologie 32 (2001) 527-545

Effects of insect growth regulators on honey bees and non-Apis bees. A review

Jean-Noël Tasei

Unité de Recherches de Zoologie, INRA, 86600 Lusignan, France

(Received 26 December 2000; revised 17 May 2001; accepted 24 July 2001)

The insect growth regulators (IGRs) are ecdysone or juvenile hormone mimics, or chitin synthesis inhibitors. They are more likely to be hazardous to larval insects than to adults. Application of JH mimics to adult honey bees may affect foraging behaviour and some physiological traits. Topical and feeding tests revealed that application of IGRs to larvae may result in death and larval ejection by workers, malformed larvae and pupae with typical rimmed eyes, or malformed adults. Several laboratory "larvae tests" using artificially contaminated diets have been described for honey bees and bumble bees. Field and cage methods have also been published for honey bees and bumble bees respectively. Diflubenzuron was generally safe for honey bee brood in fields treated at 35 to 400 g$\cdot$ha-1 a.i. and harmful to bumble bees at 300 g$\cdot$ha-1 a.i. Fenoxycarb was safe for bumble bees at 1200 g$\cdot$ha-1 a.i. and hazardous to honey bees causing damage to honey bee brood at 140 g$\cdot$ha-1.

Key words: insect growth regulator / honey bee / non-Apis bee / toxicity / risk assessment

Correspondence and reprints: Jean-Noël Tasei

© INRA, EDP Sciences, DIB, AGIB 2001