Free Access
Volume 39, Number 5, September-October 2008
Page(s) 566 - 573
Published online 28 October 2008
References of  Apidologie 39 (2008) 566–573
  • Amssalu B., Nuru A., Radloff S.E., Hepburn H.R. (2004) Multivariate morphometric analysis of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the Ethiopian region, Apidologie 35, 71–81 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Arias M.C., Sheppard W.S. (1996) Molecular phylogenetics of honeybee subspecies (Apis mellifera L.), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 5, 557–566 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Baldensperger P.J. (1932) Variétés d'abeilles en Afrique du nord, 5th Congr. Int. Entomol. Paris, pp. 829–839.
  • Cockerell T.D.A. (1906) New rocky mountain bees, and other notes, Can. Entomol. 38, 160–166.
  • Cornuet J.M., Garnery L. (1991) Mitochondrial DNA variability in honeybees and its phylogeographic implications, Apidologie 22, 627–642 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • El-Sarrag M.S.A. (1977) Morphometrical and Biological Studies on Sudanese Honeybees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt.
  • El-Sarrag M.S.A., Nagi S.K.A. (1989) Studies on some factors affecting mating of queen honeybees in Khartoum area Sudan, Proc. 4 Int. Conf. Apic. Trop. Climates, Cairo, pp. 20–24.
  • El-Sarrag M.S.A., Saeed A.A., Hussien M.A. (1992) Morphometrical study on Sudanese Honeybees, J. King. Saud. Univ. Agric. Sci. 1, 99–100.
  • Engel M.S. (1999) The taxonomy of recent and fossil honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae; Apis), J. Hymenoptera Res. 8, 165–196.
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (1998) The origin of west European subspecies of honeybees (Apis mellifera): New insights from microsatellite and mitochondrial data, Evolution 52, 1119–1134 [CrossRef].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Celebrano G., Solignac M. (2000a) Hybrid origins of the Italian honeybees, Apis mellifera ligustica and A. m. sicula, Mol. Ecol. 9, 907–923 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (2000b) Molecular confirmation of a fourth lineage in honeybees from Middle-East, Apidologie 31, 167–180 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Franck P., Garnery L., Loiseau A., Oldroyd B.P., Hepburn H.R., Solignac M., Cornuet J.M. (2001) Genetic diversity of the honeybee in Africa: microsatellite and mitochondrial data, Heredity 86, 420–430 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Garnery L., Cornuet J.M., Solignac M. (1992) Evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis, Mol. Ecol. 1, 145–154 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Garnery L., Solignac M., Celebrano G., Cornuet J.M. (1993) A simple test using restricted PCR-amplified mitochondrial DNA to study the genetic structure of Apis mellifera L., Experientia 49, 1016–1021 [CrossRef].
  • Garnery L., Mosshine E.H., Oldroyd B.P., Cornuet J.M. (1995) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Moroccan and Spanish honey bee populations, Mol. Ecol. 4, 465–471 [CrossRef].
  • Gasse F.R., Tehet A., Durand A., Gilbert E., Fontes J.C. (1990) The arid-humid transition in the Sahara and Sahel during the last glaciation, Nature 346, 141–146 [CrossRef].
  • Harrison M.N., Jackson J.K. (1958) Ecological Classification of Vegetation Of Sudan, Bulletin 2, 1–45, Forest Department, Khartoum.
  • Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E. (1996) Morphometric and pheromonal analyses of Apis mellifera L. along a transect from the Sahara to the Pyrenees, Apidologie 27, 35–45 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E. (1997) Biogeographical correlates of population variance in the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of Africa, Apidologie 28, 243–258 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E. (1998) Honeybees of Africa, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Hooghiemstra H., Stalling H., Agwu C.O.C., Dupont L.M. (1992) Vegetation and climatic changes at the northern fringe of the Sahara 250 000–5 000 years BP, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 74, 1–53 [CrossRef].
  • Maa T.C. (1953) An inquiry into the systematics of the tribus Apidini or honeybees (Hymenoptera), Treubia 21, 525–640.
  • Meixner M.D., Arias M.C., Sheppard W.S. (2000) Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in honey bee subspecies from Kenya, Apidologie 31, 181–190 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Mogga J.B. (1988) The Taxonomy and Geographical Variability of the Honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Sudan, MSc. Thesis, University of Khartoum, Khartoum.
  • Moritz R.F.A., Cornuet J.M., Kryger P., Garnery L., Hepburn H.R. (1994) Mitochondrial DNA variability in South African honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), Apidologie 25, 169–178 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Beye M., Hepburn H.R. (1998) Estimating the contribution of laying workers to population fitness in African honeybees (Apis mellifera) with molecular markers, Insectes Soc. 45, 277–287 [CrossRef].
  • Moritz R.F.A., Härtel S., Neumann P. (2005) Global invasions of the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the consequences for biodiversity, Ecoscience 12, 289–301 [CrossRef].
  • Potts R., Behrensmeyer A.K. (1992) Late Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems, in: Behrensmeyer A.K., Damuth J.D., Di Michele W.A. et al. (Eds.), Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 419–541.
  • Ritchie J.C. (1994) Holocene pollen spectra from Oyo, north northwestern Sudan: problems of interpretation in a hyperarid environment, The Holocene 4, 9–15 [CrossRef].
  • Rudloff W. (1981) World Climate, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart.
  • Ruttner F. (1975) African races of honeybees, Proc. 25th Int. Beekeep. Congr. Bucharest, Apimondia, pp. 325–362.
  • Ruttner F. (1988) Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees, Springer, Berlin.
  • Ruttner F. (1992) Naturgeschichte der Honigbienen, Ehrenwirth, München.
  • Ruttner F., Tassencourt L., Louveaux J. (1978) Biometrical-statistical analysis of the geographic variability of Apis mellifera L., Apidologie 9, 363–381 [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences].
  • Settele J., Hammen V., Hulme P., Karlson U., Klotz S., Kotarac M., Kunin W., Marion G., O'Connor M., Petanidou T., Peterson K., Potts S., Pritchard H., Pysek P., Rounsevell M., Spangenberg J., Steffan-Dewenter I., Sykes M., Vighi M., Zobel M., Kühn I. (2005) ALARM-Assessing Large-scale environmental Risks for biodiversity with tested Methods, Gaia 14, 69–72.
  • Smith D.R. (1991) Diversity in the Genus Apis, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
  • Smith D.R., Brown W.M. (1988) Polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA of European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera), Experientia 44, 257–260 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  • Smith F.G. (1961) The races of honeybees in Africa, Bee World 42, 255–260.
  • Van Chi-Bonnardel R. (Ed.) (1973) The Atlas of Africa, Éditions Jeune Afrique, Paris.
  • Walsh P.S., Metzger D.A., Higuchi R. (1991) Chelex 100 as medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material, Biotechniques 10, 506–513 [PubMed].
  • Walter H. (1976) Vegetationszonen und Klima, Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • Whitfield C.W., Behura S.K., Berlocher S.H., Clark A.G., Johnston J.S., Sheppard W.S. Smith D.R., Suarez A.V., Weaver D., Tsutsui N.D. (2006) Thrice out of Africa: ancient and recent expansions of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Science 314, 642–645 [CrossRef] [PubMed].